Entropy Distribution of Localised States

  • Roberto LongoEmail author


We study the geometric distribution of the relative entropy of a charged localised state in Quantum Field Theory. With respect to translations, the second derivative of the vacuum relative entropy is zero out of the charge localisation support and positive in mean over the support of any single charge. For a spatial strip, the asymptotic mean entropy density is \({\pi E}\) , with E the corresponding vacuum charge energy. In a conformal QFT, for a charge in a ball of radius r, the relative entropy is non linear, the asymptotic mean radial entropy density is \({\pi E}\) and Bekenstein’s bound is satisfied. We also study the null deformation case. We construct, operator algebraically, a positive selfadjoint operator that may be interpreted as the deformation generator, we thus get a rigorous form of the Averaged Null Energy Condition that holds in full generality. In the one dimensional conformal U(1)-current model, we give a complete and explicit description of the entropy distribution of a localised charged state in all points of the real line; in particular, the second derivative of the relative entropy is strictly positive in all points where the charge density is non zero, thus the Quantum Null Energy Condition holds here for these states and is not saturated in these points.


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This paper is the follow up of a question privately set to the author by Edward Witten at the Okinawa Strings 2018 conference. The author warmly thanks him for sharing his insight and constant encouragement. We wish to thank also Hirosi Ooguri and the conference organisers for the kind invitation, and Nima Lashkari for comments. We acknowledge the MIUR Excellence Department Project awarded to the Department of Mathematics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, CUP E83C18000100006.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di MatematicaUniversità di Roma “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly

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