Advertisement

Significance of FRAP, DPPH, and CUPRAC assays for antioxidant activity determination in apple fruit extracts

  • Shruti SethiEmail author
  • Alka Joshi
  • Bindvi Arora
  • Arpan Bhowmik
  • R. R. Sharma
  • Pushpendra Kumar
Original Paper

Abstract

Thirteen apple cultivars were analyzed for their total phenolic content, total flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid in methanolic extracts of both peel and cortex fractions. Three in vitro assays (FRAP, DPPH, and CUPRAC) were used to determine the antioxidant activity. Concentration of the phytochemicals studied varied greatly between the apple peel and the cortex region. Peels showed ~ 2.8 times higher total phenolic content and ~ 2.68% higher flavonoid content than the cortex. Principal component analysis could successfully explain 76.86% and 84.27% variability in the antioxidant determinants (antioxidants/assays) in the peel and cortex region of apple cultivars, respectively. Major contributor for antioxidant activity in both apple peel and cortex was total flavonoid content. Cultivars ‘Well Spur’ and ‘Oregon Spur II’ were found to be substantially rich in these two antioxidants. The antioxidant activity was best expressed by the in vitro FRAP assay in both the fractions. Non-hierarchical K-medoids clustering reflected the presence of an antioxidant/ assay protocol apart from the antioxidant/assay we considered in this study that needs further exploration to get full spectra of antioxidant profile across apple genotypes. Based on multivariate analysis and the concept of RACI, the FRAP antioxidant assay is recommended for determining antioxidant activity in apples.

Keywords

Apple Total phenolic content Total flavonoid content Multivariate analysis Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with Ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Supplementary material

217_2020_3432_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
Supplementary file1 (XLSX 11 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Gallus S, Talamini R, Giacosa A, Montella M, Ramazzotti V, Franceschi S, Negri E, La Vecchia C (2005) Does an apple a day keep the oncologist away? Ann Oncol 16:1841–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wolfe K, Xianzhong W, Rui Hai L (2003) Antioxidant activity of apple peels. J Agric Food Chem 51:609–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sharma RK, Sharma N, Khatri S, Kundra R (2015) Antioxidant properties of fruit pulp and peel of eight apple cultivars grown in Himachal Pradesh Int J Food Nutr Sci 4:102–108Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Awad M, de Jager A (2002) Relationships between fruit nutrients and concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in Elstar apple skin. Sci Hortic 92:265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Golding JB, Mcglasson WB, Wyllie SG, Leach DN (2001) Fate of apple peel phenolics during cool storage. J Agric Food Chem 49:2283–2289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lu Y, Foo L (2000) Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of polyphenols from apple pomace. Food Chem 68:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    van der Sluis A, Dekker M, Skrede G, Jongen W (2002) Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 1. Effect of existing production methods. J Agric Food Chem 50:7211–7219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guyot S, Marnet N, Sanoner P, Drilleau J (2003) Variability of the polyphenolic composition of cider apple (Malus domestica) fruits and juices. J Agric Food Chem 51:6240–6240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Karaman S, Tutem E, Baskan KS, Apak R (2012) Comparison of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of peel and flesh of some apple varieties. J Agric Food Chem 93:867–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ou B, Huang D, Hampsch-Woodill M, Flanagan JA, Deemer EK (2002) Analysis of antioxidant activities of common vegetables employing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays: a comparative study. J Agric Food Chem 50:3122–3128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Awika JM, Rooney LW, Wu X, Prior RL, Cisneros-Zevallos L (2003) Screening methods to measure antioxidant activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sorghum products. J Agric Food Chem 51:6657–6662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K (2005) Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J Agric Food Chem 53:4290–4302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Apak R, Gorinstein S, Bohm V, Schaich KM, Ozyürek M, Guclu K (2013) Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity/activity (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl Chem 85:957–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee KW, Kim YJ, Dae-Ok K, Lee HJ, Lee CY (2003) Major phenolics in apple and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem 51:6516–6520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Singleton VL, Rossi JA (1965) Colorimetry of total phenols with phosphomolybdic–phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 16:144–158Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ordonez AAL, Gomez JD, Vattuone MA, Isla MI (2006) Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) swart extracts. Food Chem 97:452–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ranganna S (2007) Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetable products, 4th edn. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, BengaluruGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Benzie IFF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ao C, Li A, Elzaawely AA, Xuan TD, Tawata S (2008) Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Ficus microcarpa L. fil. extract. Food Control 19:940–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Apak R, Guculu KG, Ozyurek M, Karademir SE (2004) Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric iron reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method. J Agric Food Chem 52:7970–7981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sun T, Tanumihardjo SA (2007) An integrated approach to evaluate food antioxidant capacity. J Food Sci 72:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kumar P, Sethi S, Sharma RR, Singh S, Saha S, Sharma VK, Verma MK, Sharma SK (2018) Nutritional characterization of apple as a function of genotype. J Food Sci Technol 55:2729–2738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Imeh U, Khokhar S (2002) Distribution of conjugated and free phenols in fruits: antioxidant activity and cultivar variations. J Agric Food Chem 50:6301–6306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vrhovsek U, Rigo A, Tonon D, Mattivi F (2004) Quantitation of polyphenols in different apple varieties. J Agric Food Chem 52:6532–6538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D’Abrosca B, Pacifico S, Cefarelli G, Mastellone C, Fiorentino A (2007) ‘Limoncella’ apple, an Italian cultivar: phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. Food Chem 104:1333–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ozoglu H, Bayindirli A (2002) Inhibition of enzymic browning in cloudy apple juice with selected antibrowning reagents. Food Control 13:213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lancaster JE, Grant JE, Lister CE (1994) Skin color in apples—influence of copigmentation and plastid pigments on shade and darkness of red color in five genotypes. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 119:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Birasuren B, Kim NY, Jeon HL, Kim MR (2013) Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of Agriophyllum pungens seed extracts from Mongolia. Prev Nutr Food Sci 18:188–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Amiot MJ, Tacchini M, Aubert S, Nicolas J (1992) Phenolic composition and browning susceptibility of various apple cultivars at maturity. J Food Sci 57:958–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sanoner P, Guyot S, Marnet N, Molle D, Drilleau JF (1999) Polyphenol profiles of French cider apple varieties (Malus domestica sp.). J Agric Food Chem 47:4847–4853CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Food Science and Postharvest TechnologyICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Division of Design of ExperimentsICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Post Harvest Management, College of Horticulture and ForestryCentral Agricultural UniversityPasighatIndia

Personalised recommendations