Varietal classification of red wine samples from four native Greek grape varieties based on volatile compound analysis, color parameters and phenolic composition

  • Despina Karimali
  • Ioanna Kosma
  • Anastasia BadekaEmail author
Original Paper


Four Greek monovarietal red wines, Agiorgitiko of Nemea, Xinomavro of Naousa, Mavrotragano of Santorini and Fociano of Ikaria, were characterized and classified in terms of volatile and phenolic composition. Total phenolic content (TPC) and color parameters were also studied. Forty-four volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified by head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME–GC/MS) and five phenolic compounds were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC–DAD). Concerning the total volatile fraction, Xinomavro showed the highest amount as it was particularly rich in alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons, while in the other three wine varieties ranged at lower concentrations. Furthermore, Xinomavro and Mavrotragano recorded the highest phenolic content, whereas Fociano recorded the lowest concentrations in both TPC and individual phenolic components. As far as classification results are concerned, the application of statistical analysis (multivariate analysis of variance/linear discriminant analysis—MANOVA/LDA), on volatile compounds resulted in a rather high classification rate (87.5%). Finally, the respective rates for color and TPC phenolics were also quite satisfactory (75% and 62.5%, respectively).


Monovarietal red wines Classification Volatile profile Phenolic compounds 



Total phenolic content


Head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry


High-performance liquid chromatography


Multivariate analysis of variance


Linear discriminant analysis


Protected designation of origin


Gallic acid equivalents


Retention Index


Analysis of variance




Author contributions

Conceptualization: AB; methodology: AB, DK, IK; software: DK, IK; formal analysis and investigation: DK, IK; data interpretation: AB, DK, IK; writing—original draft preparation: IK, DK; writing—review and editing: AB; funding acquisition: AB; resources: AB; supervision: AB.

Compliance with ethics standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human and animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of ChemistryUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

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