Varietal classification of red wine samples from four native Greek grape varieties based on volatile compound analysis, color parameters and phenolic composition
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Four Greek monovarietal red wines, Agiorgitiko of Nemea, Xinomavro of Naousa, Mavrotragano of Santorini and Fociano of Ikaria, were characterized and classified in terms of volatile and phenolic composition. Total phenolic content (TPC) and color parameters were also studied. Forty-four volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified by head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME–GC/MS) and five phenolic compounds were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC–DAD). Concerning the total volatile fraction, Xinomavro showed the highest amount as it was particularly rich in alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons, while in the other three wine varieties ranged at lower concentrations. Furthermore, Xinomavro and Mavrotragano recorded the highest phenolic content, whereas Fociano recorded the lowest concentrations in both TPC and individual phenolic components. As far as classification results are concerned, the application of statistical analysis (multivariate analysis of variance/linear discriminant analysis—MANOVA/LDA), on volatile compounds resulted in a rather high classification rate (87.5%). Finally, the respective rates for color and TPC phenolics were also quite satisfactory (75% and 62.5%, respectively).
KeywordsMonovarietal red wines Classification Volatile profile Phenolic compounds
Total phenolic content
Head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
High-performance liquid chromatography
Multivariate analysis of variance
Linear discriminant analysis
Protected designation of origin
Gallic acid equivalents
Analysis of variance
Conceptualization: AB; methodology: AB, DK, IK; software: DK, IK; formal analysis and investigation: DK, IK; data interpretation: AB, DK, IK; writing—original draft preparation: IK, DK; writing—review and editing: AB; funding acquisition: AB; resources: AB; supervision: AB.
Compliance with ethics standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human and animal subjects.
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