Effect of different leavening agents on the nutritional characteristics of two durum wheat breads

  • Rita AcquistucciEmail author
  • Valentina Melini
  • Salvatore Tusa
  • Mauro Mecozzi
Original Paper


Two durum wheat bread samples produced using the same re-milled semolina but different leavening agents (sourdough and compressed yeast) have been considered in this study. Chemical composition, color characteristics, lutein content and starch digestibility have been addressed in both samples. In addition, to evaluate possible modifications induced on the protein structure attributable to the different leavening agents used, the secondary structure of proteins was also studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crumb of bread sample produced by compressed yeast exhibited a higher yellow index compared to the other sample but this difference was completely lost in crust because of the high baking temperature applied. Lutein resulted more preserved after the yeast fermentation due to the shorter time required for the fermentation with respect to sourdough. Total starch and resistant starch content resulted comparable in the two samples with the latter about 1% in both samples. The infrared spectroscopic study of the protein amide I band showed the lack of the random coil structure, related to the protein denaturation, and negligible changes in the relative ratios among the α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn secondary structures of proteins.


Durum bread Sourdough Compressed yeast Re-milled semolina Protein secondary structure 



This work was undertaken within the Project TERRAVITA financially supported by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural, Food, Forestry and Tourism Policies.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain experiments with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Acquistucci
    • 1
    Email author
  • Valentina Melini
    • 1
  • Salvatore Tusa
    • 2
  • Mauro Mecozzi
    • 3
  1. 1.Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Centro di ricerca Alimenti e NutrizioneRomeItaly
  2. 2.Antica Forneria TusaMonrealeItaly
  3. 3.Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Laboratorio di ChemiometriaRomeItaly

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