Yeast extract production using spent yeast from beer manufacture: influence of industrially applicable disruption methods on selected substance groups with biotechnological relevance

  • Friedrich Felix JacobEmail author
  • Lisa Striegel
  • Michael Rychlik
  • Mathias Hutzler
  • Frank-Jürgen Methner
Original paper


Spent brewer’s yeast is an excellent source of a variety of bioactive substances. In this study, for the first time, the focus was solely on investigating the influence of three industrially applicable cell disruption methods (cell mill, sonotrode, and autolysis) on selected substance groups relevant for physiology and process technology. A consistent spent yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae TUM 68) produced in a standardized industrial pilot top-fermenting process was used as a raw material. Using mechanical methods, i.e., cell mill and sonotrode, the protein content (as not hydrolyzed in free amino acids), the trehalose and the total fat content in the yeast extract were increased compared with those produced in the autolytic method. The analyzed B vitamin levels were also higher, the biologically active 5-CH3-H4folate in particular had the greatest proportion in the folate vitamer distribution of the mechanically produced yeast extracts. An increased level of non-fragmented genomic and mitochondrial DNA could also be found in the yeast extract produced via the mechanical methods. The antioxidative and reduction potential was decreased by the degradation of polyphenols and glutathione in the yeast extract following autolysis. The mineral, RNA, glycogen, glucose, fructose and ash contents did not differ significantly. Therefore, the cell mill and sonotrode offered a good alternative method to conventional autolytic procedures, especially to transfer physiologically relevant substance groups in higher concentrations to the yeast extract.


Brewer’s spent yeast extract Mechanical cell disruption strategies Autolysis Nutritional value Antioxidative potential Saccharomyces cerevisiae 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Friedrich Felix Jacob, Lisa Striegel, Michael Rychlik, Mathias Hutzler and Frank-Jürgen Methner declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

The authors Friedrich Felix Jacob, Lisa Striegel, Michael Rychlik, Mathias Hutzler and Frank-Jürgen Methner hereby confirm that this manuscript is performed according and follows the COPE guidelines and has not already been published nor is it under consideration for publication elsewhere. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Friedrich Felix Jacob
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lisa Striegel
    • 2
  • Michael Rychlik
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mathias Hutzler
    • 4
  • Frank-Jürgen Methner
    • 1
  1. 1.Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Lebensmitteltechnologie und Lebensmittelchemie, Fachgebiet BrauwesenBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Analytische LebensmittelchemieFreisingGermany
  3. 3.Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationUniversity of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  4. 4.Forschungszentrum Weihenstephan für Brau-und Lebensmittelqualität, Technische Universität MünchenFreisingGermany

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