Bioactive compound-rich, virtually unknown, edible fruits from the Atlantic Rainforest: changes in antioxidant activity and related bioactive compounds during ripening
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The antioxidant activity, and total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents were evaluated for five fruits native to the Atlantic Rainforest. For fully ripen fruits, total flavonoid content was significantly higher (p = 0.05) for fruits of butia (12.3 mg/100 g) and uvaia (11.2 mg/100 g) (Table 2). Fruits of lemon guava and gabiroba presented total phenolic contents (over 4,300 mg GAE/100 g) significantly higher (p = 0.05) than the other fruits used in this study. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) for fully ripen strawberry guava (216 mg/100 g) was significantly higher (p = 0.05) than the TAC found for any of the other fruits used in this study (Table 2). Total carotenoid content (176 mg/100 g) was significantly higher (p = 0.05) in fruits of butia. The antioxidant activity of gabiroba fruits (26.45 mM TROLOX equivalents/g DM, DPPH) was significantly higher (p = 0.05) among the fruits used in this study. Reduction in total phenolic and flavonoid contents was found for gabiroba, strawberry guava and uvaia fruits following ripening, except for butia (Table 2). Progressive reduction in antioxidant activity paralleled reductions in total phenolic and flavonoid contents. A remarkable increase in total anthocyanins from 18 to 216 mg/100 g was found for strawberry guava fruits during ripening. Data from this study demonstrate that various virtually unknown fruits native to the Atlantic Rainforest, especially gabiroba, present very high antioxidant activity and very high amounts of compounds known to promote human health.
KeywordsAnthocyanins Carotenoids Flavonoids Phenolics Tropical fruits Functional foods
The authors would like to thank CNPq, Fundação Araucária and the Paraná Centre for Scientific and Educational Research on Medicinal Plants for their financial support.
MBE collected data, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript. ABP-N designed the study, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This article does not contain any studies carried out with human participants performed by any of the authors.
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