European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 245, Issue 2, pp 443–458 | Cite as

Physicochemical and textural quality attributes of gluten-free bread formulated with guar gum

  • Christian R. Encina-ZeladaEmail author
  • Vasco Cadavez
  • Fernando Monteiro
  • José A. Teixeira
  • Ursula Gonzales-Barron
Original Paper


The objective of this study was to assess the combined effect of guar gum (GG) and water content (WC) on the rheological properties of batter, and the physicochemical and textural properties of bread. Batches of gluten-free bread used a base formulation of rice (50%), maize (30%) and quinoa flour (20%), with different levels of GG (2.5, 3.0 or 3.5%) and water (90, 100 or 110%) in a full factorial design. Higher GG doses (p < 0.001) tended to produce batters of lower stickiness, work of adhesion and cohesive strength; yet, of higher firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index. These batters yielded loaves of lower (p < 0.001) specific volume and baking loss; and crumbs of lower (p < 0.001) aw, pH, mean cell area, void fraction, mean cell aspect ratio; and higher (p < 0.001) hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, resilience, mean cell density, cell size uniformity and mean cell compactness. The sticker and less consistent batters produced with higher WC rendered larger bread loaves of softer and more cohesive and springy/resilient crumbs with greater mean cell size and void fraction. Gluten-free loaves of good appearance in terms of higher specific volume, lower crumb hardness, higher crumb springiness, and open grain visual texture were obtained in formulations with 110% WC and GG doses between 2.5 and 3.0%.


Quinoa Rice Maize Rheology Texture profile analysis Crumb image analysis 



Eng. Encina-Zelada acknowledges the financial aid provided by the Peruvian National Programme of Scholarships and Student Loans (PRONABEC) in the mode of PhD grants (Presidente de la República-183308). The authors are grateful to Eng. Andrea Oliveira from Prodipani, Portugal, for her kind advice and providing breadmaking ingredients.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CIMO Mountain Research Centre, School of AgriculturePolytechnic Institute of BragançaBragançaPortugal
  2. 2.Centre of Biological Engineering, School of EngineeringUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food IndustriesNational Agricultural University La MolinaLimaPeru
  4. 4.Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Technology and ManagementPolytechnic Institute of BragançaBragançaPortugal
  5. 5.INESC-TEC-Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering, Technology and SciencePortoPortugal

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