Vitamin D enhanced pork from pigs exposed to artificial UVB light in indoor facilities
- 155 Downloads
Vitamin D deficiency is a recognized problem in Europe; this can be minimized by fortifying a broader range of foods. Our aim was to investigate the potential for enhancing the vitamin D content of pork from pigs raised in indoor facilities, by exposing the pigs to UVB for a period just before slaughter. Three groups of six pigs were exposed to 0, 0.7 or 1 SED/day for 28 days. A fourth group was exposed to 2 SED; this treatment was not completed due to mild erythema. The highest increase of vitamin D3 was achieved with 1 SED; the vitamin D3 content in loin was 3.7 ng/g; more than a factor of 2 higher compared to previously reported results from studies using 2000 IU/kg feed, the maximum allowed level in Europe. This is the first time an increase in the vitamin D content of pork has been reported as a result of using artificial UVB exposure of slaughter pigs in indoor facilities. However, the maximum production of vitamin D was probably not reached as a linear relationship between UVB dose and vitamin D content was found; therefore, the UVB-lighting method described still calls for further investigation to realise its full potential to enhance vitamin D in pork.
KeywordsVitamin D UVB Pork Pigs
We would like to acknowledge the staff at Rørrendegård (University of Copenhagen) for their commitment to take care of the pigs, Heidi Jahn and Tamaris Phipps (DTU Food) for their skillful performance of the analysis for vitamin D and fat, and Dennis Dan Corell (DTU Fotonik) for performing the UVB measurements.
A grant from the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme (ODIN; Grant agreement no. 613977) and the Technical University of Denmark funded the project. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors’ declares that they have no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
The Animal Experiments Inspectorate, part of the Danish Veterinary Food and Administration, judged that the trial did not need a governmental approval. No ethics committee was involved as the pigs lived similar to pigs at a farm except that they were exposed to UVB light similar to a daily exposure of approximately 5–20 min summer sunshine in Denmark. The project plan was assessed and approved by a veterinarian at the Department of Experimental Medicine at University of Copenhagen (Number P16-414). The animals were overseen by keepers and veterinarians during the trial.
- 2.Institute of Medicine (2011) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D and calcium. The National Academies Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- 20.Tybirk P, Sloth NM, Kjeldsen N, Shooter L (2016) Nutrient requirement standards, 24th edn. SEGES Pig Research CentreGoogle Scholar
- 21.Jakobsen J, Mikkelsen A, Bysted A, Knuthsen P (2017) Næringsindhold i kødudskæringer—Danske grise. Søborg, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
- 22.Steenbock H, Hart EB, Jones JH (1924) Fat-soluble vitamins. XVIII. Sunlight in its relation to pork production on certain restricted rations. J Biol Chem 61:775–794Google Scholar
- 23.Steenbock H, Hart E, Hoppert C, Black A (1925) Fat-soluble vitamin. XXVI. The antirachitic property of milk and its increase by direct irradiation and by irradiation of the animal. J Biol Chem 66:441–449Google Scholar
- 25.International Commission on Illumination (1999) Erythema reference action spectrum and standard erythema dose. ISO/CIE Standard ISO 17166:1999Google Scholar
- 28.International Standard Organization (2005) ISO/IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Int Stand 2005:1–36Google Scholar
- 29.Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (1989) Fat. Determination according to SBR (Schmid–Bodynzki–Ratslaff) in meat and meat products. Method no. 131Google Scholar
- 30.R Core Team (2017) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical ComputingGoogle Scholar
- 31.RStudio Team (2016) RStudio: integrated development for RGoogle Scholar
- 37.Wilson LR, Tripkovic L, Hart KH, Lanham-New SA (2016) Conference on “New technology in nutrition research and practice” postgraduate symposium vitamin D deficiency as a public health issue: using vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in future fortification strategies. In: Proceedings of the nutrition society, pp 11–14Google Scholar
- 39.Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (2006) Biochemistry, 6th edn. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, USAGoogle Scholar