European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 245, Issue 1, pp 41–50 | Cite as

Development and characterization of liquors prepared with an underutilized citrus by-product, the peel

  • Patricia Navarro-Martínez
  • Luis Noguera-Artiaga
  • Paola Sánchez-Bravo
  • Ema C. Rosas-Burgos
  • Antonio J. Pérez-López
  • Ángel A. Carbonell-BarrachinaEmail author
Original Paper


Three orange liquors were prepared by macerating of the peel of three orange cultivars (“Clemenules”, “Valencia Late”, and “Sanguinely”). The following parameters were analyzed in these spirits: the volatile composition by gas chromatography, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity (ABTS+, FRAP and DPPH· methods), sensory profile (trained panel) and affective test (consumers’ panel). These products had a great aromatic potential, characterized by proper volatile profiles, mainly monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, being that the “Clemenules” and “Valencia Late” liquors were those with the most complex aroma. On the other hand, the “Sanguinely” liquor had the highest polyphenol content (557 mg GAE/mL) and the highest antioxidant activity by ABTS+ and FRAP (4.77 and 4.90 mmol Trolox/mL, respectively). The “Clemenules” and “Valencia Late” spirits were those preferred by the consumers, with the intensities of the most relevant attributes being close to the optimal values according to the consumers’ opinion, and were the closest ones to the consumers’ “ideal liquor”. The use of the by-products of the food industries is one of the most important challenges to be faced to minimize pollution and climate change. In this paper, it has been proven that good liquors can be prepared using citrus peels, which are discarded after manufacturing citrus juices, increasing the options of the juice companies and the potential prices of these fruits and the farmers’ revenues.


Alcoholic beverages Antioxidant activity Sensory analysis Citrus sinensis Citrus reticulata Volatile compounds 



Luis Noguera-Artiaga was funded by an FPU grant from the Spanish government (FPU014/01874).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Complaince with ethics requirements

All ethical requirements associated to consumers' studies have been followed. Our University has a wide expertise on this type of studies, and we followed all ethical requirements.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Navarro-Martínez
    • 1
  • Luis Noguera-Artiaga
    • 2
  • Paola Sánchez-Bravo
    • 2
  • Ema C. Rosas-Burgos
    • 3
  • Antonio J. Pérez-López
    • 1
  • Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Detection and Molecular Encapsulation, Food Technologies and Nutrition DepartmentUniversidad Católica San Antonio de MurciaGuadalupeSpain
  2. 2.Grupo Calidad y Seguridad Alimentaria (CSA), Departamento de Tecnología Agroalimentaria, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO)Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH)OrihuelaSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado en AlimentosUniversidad de SonoraHermosilloMexico

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