Impact of drying method on the nutritional value of the edible insect protein from black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae: amino acid composition, nutritional value evaluation, in vitro digestibility, and thermal properties
Black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens L.), an insect with high protein, has been proposed as a sustainable protein resource alternative for both food and feed for their nutritional composition and ease of rearing. The amino acid composition, nutritional value, in vitro digestibility, morphologies, and thermal properties of the BSF larvae proteins (BSFLP) based on two drying methods were investigated. Experimental results showed that their amino acid score could reach the requirement of FAO/WHO (dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. Report of an FAO expert consultation. Food and nutrition paper no. 92. Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization, Rome, 2013) for indispensable amino acids for older children, adolescents, and adults. The proportion of essential amino acids to total amino acids (E/T) of both conventional dried BSFLP (CD-BSFLP) and microwave dried BSFLP (MD-BSFLP) was more than 40%. Lysine and valine were found to be the first limiting amino acid for CD-BSFLP and MD-BSFLP, respectively. Both of the in vitro digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) values of the BSFLP were more than 75%. The results of scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry of the samples showed that microwave drying polymerized the protein particles and made them harder to digest. In conclusion, the BSFLP prepared by conventional drying (60 °C) had higher DIAAS and better digestibility. Moreover, the amino acid composition and high DIAAS (> 75%) indicated that the BSFLP could be utilized as a good source of animal protein for human nutrition.
KeywordsEdible insect protein Hermetia illucens Nutritional value In vitro digestibility DIAAS Thermal properties
This study was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 31701604) and the Scientific Research Foundation of Wuhan Institute of Technology (Grant no. k201633).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There are no conflicts to declare.
Compliance with ethical requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subject.
- 3.Osimani A, Garofalo C, Milanović V, Taccari M, Cardinali F, Aquilanti L, Pasquini M, Mozzon M, Raffaelli N, Ruschioni S, Riolo P, Isidoro N, Clementi F (2017) Insight into the proximate composition and microbial diversity of edible insects marketed in the European Union. Eur Food Res Technol 243:1157–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Schiavone A, De Marco M, Martinez S, Dabbou S, Renna M, Madrid J, Hernandez F, Rotolo L, Costa P, Gai F, Gasco L (2017) Nutritional value of a partially defatted and a highly defatted black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) meal for broiler chickens: apparent nutrient digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 8:51CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 10.Renna M, Schiavone A, Gai F, Dabbou S, Lussiana C, Malfatto V, Prearo M, Capucchio MT, Biasato I, Biasibetti E, De Marco M, Brugiapaglia A, Zoccarato I, Gasco L (2017) Evaluation of the suitability of a partially defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal as ingredient for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 8:57CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 12.Belforti M, Gai F, Lussiana C, Renna M, Malfatto V, Rotolo L, De Marco M, Dabbou S, Schiavone A, Zoccarato I, Gasco L (2016) Tenebrio molitormeal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) diets: effects on animal performance, nutrient digestibility and chemical composition of fillets. Ital J Anim Sci 14(4):4170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Mathai JK, Liu Y, Stein HH (2017) Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS). Br J Nutr 117(4):490–499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Spranghers T, Ottoboni M, Klootwijk C, Ovyn A, Deboosere S, De Meulenaer B, Michiels J, Eeckhout M, De Clercq P, De Smet S (2017) Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates. J Sci Food Agric 97(8):2594–2600CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.AOAC (2000) Official methods of analyses, 17th edn. AOAC International, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 35.FAO/WHO (2013) Dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. Report of an FAO expert consultation. Food and nutrition paper no. 92. Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar