European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 245, Issue 1, pp 1–9 | Cite as

Comparative study of red berry pomaces (blueberry, red raspberry, red currant and blackberry) as source of antioxidants and pigments

  • M. José Jara-Palacios
  • Adela Santisteban
  • Belén Gordillo
  • Dolores Hernanz
  • Francisco J. Heredia
  • M. Luisa Escudero-GileteEmail author
Original Paper


Anthocyanins are phenolic compounds with important technological applications due to its bioactive and color properties. In this study, pomaces from four red berries (blueberries, red raspberries, red currants and blackberries) have been analyzed as sources of anthocyanins. Anthocyanins were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin–Ciocalteu method, antioxidant activity by ABTS assay, and color by tristimulus colorimetry. A total of 15 anthocyanins were identified and quantified in the different pomaces from red berries. Pomaces exhibited different qualitative and quantitative anthocyanin profile and antioxidant activity, depending on type of red berry. The highest amounts of anthocyanins were found in blueberries (1188 mg/100 g); however, red currant pomaces exhibited the highest TPC (3447 mg/100 g) and AA (61 mmol/100 g). Color of extracts was different depending on individual and total content of anthocyanins. Results indicate that these berry pomaces are a natural source of antioxidants and pigments, and they may be useful for industrial purposes. Therefore, the exploitation of these pomaces, such as possible byproducts for their reuse in the food, cosmetics, and drug industries, could be of great interest, considering either the whole pomaces or its individual components.


Red berries Pomaces Anthocyanins Antioxidant activity Pigments Color 



Antioxidant activity


2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)




Red raspberry


Red currants




Total anthocyanins


Total phenolic content


Dry matter


Trolox equivalent


Stepwise linear discriminant analysis



Authors thank the assistance of the technical staff of Biology Service (SGI, Universidad de Sevilla). Authors thank the Consejería de Innovación, Ciencia y Empresas, Junta de Andalucía, the financial support (Project P11-AGR-7843).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights statement

All authors declare that this article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


  1. 1.
    Ignat I, Volf I, Popa VI (2011) A critical review of methods for characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables. Food Chem 126:1821–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Castañeda-Ovando A, Pacheco-Hernández ML, Páez-Hernández ME, Rodríguez JA, Galán-Vidal CA (2009) Chemical studies of anthocyanins: a review. Food Chem 113:859–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    He J, Giusti MM (2010) Anthocyanins: natural colorants with health-promoting properties. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 1:163–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Santos-Buelga C, Mateus N, De Freitas V (2014) Anthocyanins. Plant pigments and beyond. J Agric Food Chem 62:6879–6884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bowen-Forbes CS, Zhang Y, Nair MG (2010) Anthocyanin content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of blackberry and raspberry fruits. J Food Compos Anal 23:554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nile SH, Park SW (2014) Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health. Nutrition 30:134–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Su M, Silva J (2006) Antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, and phenolics of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) by-products as affected by fermentation. Food Chem 97:447–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van de Velde F, Gracec MH, Esposito D, Pirovani ME, Lila MA (2006) Quantitative comparison of phytochemical profile, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blackberry fruits adapted to Argentina. J Food Compos Anal 47:82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    You Q, Wang B, Chen F, Huang Z, Wang X, Luo PG (2011) Comparison of anthocyanins and phenolics in organically and conventionally grown blueberries in selected cultivars. Food Chem 125:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karaaslan NM, Yaman M (2016) Determination of anthocyanins in cherry and cranberry by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Eur Food Res Technol 242:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coman MM, Oancea AM, Verdenelli MC et al (2018) Polyphenol content and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and prebiotic properties of red fruit extracts. Eur Food Res Technol 224:735–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Junta de Andalucía (2009) Study on the strawberries and red fruits world market. Analysis of the main destination markets. Accessed 12 Feb 2018
  13. 13.
    Paes J, Dotta R, Barbero GF, Martínez J (2014) Extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) residues using supercritical CO2 and pressurized liquids. J Supercrit Fluids 95:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jara-Palacios MJ, Hernanz D, Cifuentes-Gomez T, Escudero-Gilete ML, Heredia FJ, Spencer JPE (2015) Assessment of white grape pomace from winemaking as source of bioactive compounds, and its antiproliferative activity. Food Chem 183:78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jara-Palacios MJ, Hernanz D, Gonzalez-Manzano S, Santos-Buelga C, Escudero-Gilete ML, Heredia FJ (2014) Detailed phenolic composition of white grape by-products by RRLC/MS and measurement of the antioxidant activity. Talanta 125:51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fernández-Lara R, Gordillo B, Rodríguez-Pulido FJ, González-Miret ML, Villar-Martínez AA, Dávila-Ortiz G, Heredia FJ (2015) Assessment of the differences in the phenolic composition and color characteristics of new strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars by HPLC–MS and Imaging Tristimulus Colorimetry. Food Res Int 76:645–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stinco CM, Baroni MV, Di Paola Naranjo RD, Wunderlin DA, Heredia FJ, Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Vicario IM (2015) Hydrophilic antioxidant compounds in orange juice from different fruit cultivars: composition and antioxidant activity evaluated by chemical and cellular based (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) assays. J Food Compos Anal 37:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Heredia FJ, Álvarez C, González-Miret ML, Ramírez A (2004) CromaLab, Análisis de Color; Registro General de la Propiedad IntelectualGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    CIE (2004) Technical report colorimetry. (3rd ed) CIE 015:2004, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage Central Bureau, Vienna, Austria. ISBN: 978 3 901906 33 6Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    StatSoft Inc. (2007) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), v 8.0., Tulsa, OklahomaGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Borges G, Degeneve A, Mullen W, Crozier A (2010) Identification of flavonoid and phenolic antioxidants in black currants, blueberries, raspberries, red currants, and cranberries. J Agric Food Chem 58:3901–3909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gavrilova V, Kajdzanoska M, Gjamovski V, Stefova M (2011) Separation, characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in blueberries and red and black currants by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. J Agric Food Chem 59:4009–4018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Joaquín-Cruz E, Dueñas M, García-Cruz L, Salinas-Moreno Y, Santos-Buelga C, García-Salinas C (2015) Anthocyanin and phenolic characterization, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of chagalapoli (Ardisia compressa K.) fruit: a tropical source of natural pigments. Food Res Int 70:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mertz C, Cheynier V, Günata Z, Brat P (2007) Analysis of phenolic compounds in two blackberry species (Rubus glaucus and Rubus adenotrichus) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 55:616–8624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huang W, Zhang H, Liu W, Li C (2012) Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing. J Zhejiang Univ-SC B 13:94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li D, Meng X, Li B (2016) Profiling of anthocyanins from blueberries produced in China using HPLC-DAD-MS and exploratory analysis by principal component analysis. J Food Compos Anal 47:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Beattie J, Crozier A, Duthie GG (2005) Potential health benefits of berries. Curr Nutr Food Sci 1:71–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang SY, Chen CT, Wang CY et al. (2009) The influence of light and maturity on fruit quality and flavonoid content of red raspberries. Food Chem 112:676–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Choi MH, Shim SM, Kim GH (2016) Protective effect of black raspberry seed containing anthocyanins against oxidative damage to DNA, protein, and lipid. J Food Sci Technol 53:1214–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reátegui JLP, Machado APF, Barbero GF, Rezende CA, Martínez J (2014) Extraction of antioxidant compounds from blackberry (Rubus sp.) bagasse using supercritical CO2 assisted by ultrasound. J Supercrit Fluids 94:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Castrejón AD, Eichholz I, Rohn S, Kroh LW, Huyskens-Keil S (2008) Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) during fruit maturation and ripening. Food Chem 109:564–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koca I, Karadeniz B (2009) Antioxidant properties of blackberry and blueberry fruits grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Sci Hort 121:447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mazur SP, Nes A, Wold AB, Remberg SF, Aaby K (2014) Quality and chemical composition of ten red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) genotypes during three harvest seasons. Food Chem 160:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reque PM, Steffens RS, Jablonski A, Flôres SH, Rios ADO, de Jong EV (2014) Cold storage of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits and juice: anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity. J Food Compos Anal 33:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee SG, Vance TM, Nam TG, Kim DO, Koo SI, Chun OK (2015) Contribution of anthocyanin composition to total antioxidant capacity of berries. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 70:427–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Giusti MM, Wrolstad RE (2003) Acylated anthocyanins from edible sources and their applications in food systems. Biochem Eng J 14:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hernanz D, Recamales AF, Meléndez-Martínez AJ, González-Miret ML, Heredia FJ (2008) Multivariate statistical analysis of the color-anthocyanin relationships in different soilless-grown strawberry genotypes. J Agric Food Chem 56:2735–2741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Vicario IM, Heredia FJ (2003) Application of tristimulus colorimetry to estimate the carotenoids content in ultrafrozen orange juices. J Agric Food Chem 51:7266–7270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nemzer B, Vargas L, Xia X, Sintara M, Feng H (2018) Phytochemical and physical properties of blueberries, tart cherries, strawberries, and cranberries as affected by different drying methods. Food Chem 262:242–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gomes Rocha JC, Ramalho Procópio F, Corrêa Mendoça A, Marques Vieira L, Tuler Perrone I, Ribeiro de Barros FA, Cesar Stringueta P (2018) Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from jussara (Euterpe edulis M.) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruits. Food Sci Tech 38:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. José Jara-Palacios
    • 1
  • Adela Santisteban
    • 1
  • Belén Gordillo
    • 1
  • Dolores Hernanz
    • 2
  • Francisco J. Heredia
    • 1
  • M. Luisa Escudero-Gilete
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Food Colour and Quality Laboratory, Área de Nutrición y BromatologíaUniversidad de Sevilla, Facultad de FarmaciaSevillaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversidad de Sevilla, Facultad de FarmaciaSevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations