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European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 244, Issue 12, pp 2231–2241 | Cite as

Delta-7-stigmastenol: quantification and isomeric formation during chemical refining of olive pomace oil and optimization of the neutralization step

  • Malika Drira
  • Hazem Jabeur
  • Fatma Marrakchi
  • Mohamed Bouaziz
Original Paper
  • 49 Downloads

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the formation of the increase of Δ-7-stigmastenol during the chemical refining of pomace olive oil (POO) and the optimal neutralization by NaOH concentration of 20 °Be at a temperature of 70 °C. A comparison has been made between virgin olive oil (VOO) and consecutive steps of refining process in the amounts of Δ-7-stigmastenol of the POO oil samples. Among the oils, refined olive oil particularly the neutralized olive oil (NOO) by soda (NaOH) contained a high-level of Δ-7-stigmastenol. A mean result found in NOO by different concentration of NaOH from 15 to 25 °Be showed increased values significantly (p < 0.05) from 0.70 ± 0.01% to 0.78 ± 0.01% of Δ-7-stigmastenol and increased significantly (p < 0.05) the levels of erythrodiol and uvaol from 26.34 ± 0.39% to 28.11 ± 0.42%. Then, the concentration of the ∆-7-stigmastenol was evaluated using a GC–MS instrument. Besides, further analyses were performed to ensure the uniqueness of the peak of Δ-7-stigmastenol and absence of any overlap. In all cases, the level of Δ-7-stigmastenol was higher than the limit set by the International Olive Council.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Δ-7-Stigmastenol Chemical refining processes Neutralization Optimization GC/MS 

Abbreviations

VOO

Virgin olive oil

POO

Pomace–olive oil

RPOO

Refined pomace olive oil

FFA

Free fatty acids

TFAs

Trans-fatty acids

GC/MS

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

IOC

International olive council

NOO

Neutralization olive oil

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the “Ministère de l’Enseingement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique, Tunisia LR14ES08” and “Ministère de l’Agriculture et des Ressources Hydrauliques, Tunisia” for the support of this research work. The authors acknowledge also National Funds through Ministry of Higher Education-Tunisia for financing MedOOmics Project—“Mediterranean Extra Virgin Olive Oil Omics: profiling and fingerprinting”—“Arimnet2/0001/2015”, Strategic Projects UID/AGR/00115/2013. The authors would like also to thank Madam. Mariem DRIRA for English correcting of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Compliance with Ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malika Drira
    • 1
  • Hazem Jabeur
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fatma Marrakchi
    • 1
  • Mohamed Bouaziz
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Electrochimie et EnvironnementEcole National d’Ingénieur de Sfax, Universitéde SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Office National de l’HuileSfaxTunisia
  3. 3.Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie de SfaxUniversité de SfaxSfaxTunisia

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