European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 244, Issue 12, pp 2141–2148 | Cite as

Cooking water of yellow soybeans as emulsifier in gluten-free crackers

  • Luca ServentiEmail author
  • Siyun Wang
  • Jingnan Zhu
  • Silu Liu
  • Fan Fei
Original Paper


Pulse cooking water has been shown to possess several functionalities but no knowledge has been developed on commonly consumed legumes such as soybeans. This study determined composition, functionality and food applications of the cooking water of yellow soybeans (SCW). The SCW contained relevant amounts of minerals, representing about 10% of the recommended daily intake (in 100 g of SCW) of iron, potassium and phosphorous. On a macromolecular level, carbohydrates (both soluble and insoluble), protein and saponins were determined and associated to several functionalities: foaming, emulsifying and thickening. Incorporation of SCW in gluten-free crackers resulted in significant textural changes, increasing softness and moisture content of the product during a 2-day storage at room temperature, likely in result of enhanced water dynamics.


Emulsifiers Gluten free Soybean Staling Waste water 



This research was sponsored by Lincoln University with the teaching funding allocated to the research placements of Master, Bachelor and Diploma students. The authors thank Roger Cresswell and Jiao (Vicky) Zhang for performing the protein and mineral analyses. Authors also thank Andrea Hogan, Shuang Jiang and Rosy Tung for the quantification of total soluble carbohydrates, fat and ash. Finally, authors thank Kylie Dale for her preliminary research on the effect of legume cooking water on gluten-free crackers.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Compliance with Ethics requirement

No ethics approval was required for this study, only instrumental data was collected.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luca Serventi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siyun Wang
    • 1
  • Jingnan Zhu
    • 1
  • Silu Liu
    • 1
  • Fan Fei
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life SciencesLincoln UniversityChristchurchNew Zealand

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