Effect of added enzymes and quinoa flour on dough characteristics and sensory quality of a gluten-free bakery product
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The study is aimed at developing a new cereal-based product, with increased nutritional quality, using quinoa flour. The effect of the use of transglutaminase (TGase) and proteolytic enzymes on the microstructure, properties and in vitro digestion of gluten-free bakery products based on quinoa flour was evaluated. Microstructural results evaluated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that the quinoa starch granules are rather small (0.4–2 µm) and the presence of TGase induced significantly changes in dough and baked samples microstructures. The overall acceptability of the breads was improved by TGase addition. The results achieved showed that these enzymes have different effects on the bread characteristics and may improve properties of formulations, setting the basis for the development of baked quinoa products.
KeywordsChenopodium quinoa Willd. Quinoa proteins Transglutaminase Microstructure In vitro digestibility MS/MS analysis
Thanks to Mr. Gaetano Coppola—Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II for technical help.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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