Making natural sparkling wines with non-Saccharomyces yeasts
- 136 Downloads
The usage of alternative non-Saccharomyces yeasts might provide desirable characteristics to white and red sparkling wines. In this study, second fermentation in the bottle was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae as control and two non-Saccharomyces species: Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The second fermentations of white base wine made from Vitis Vinifera cv. Airén grapes and red base wine made from Vitis Vinifera cv. Tempranillo grapes, in the bottle were followed by aging on lees during 4 months at 12 °C. Finally, physicochemical properties were analyzed and a sensory evaluation was held. Significant differences were detected among sparkling wines produced with the studied yeasts in acidity parameters and non-volatile compounds. The pyranoanthocyanin content and color intensity was higher with the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe in red sparkling wines. The total amount of volatile compounds was similar among treatments, but in certain compounds, individual variations in concentration were seen. Total amount of biogenic amines decreased in all the samples after the treatment. Differences were also detected in sensory evaluation; the sparkling wines produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed different aromatic profile in comparison to sparkling wines produced with Schizosaccharomyces pombe, considering the parameters of limpidity, aroma intensity, aroma quality, flowery, fruity, buttery and reduction aromas in white samples; color intensity, limpidity, aroma intensity, herbal, buttery, yeasty, and oxidation aromas in red samples. Usage of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for sparkling wine production with traditional method can be furtherly studied to change specific characteristics of sparkling wines without decreasing their overall quality and obtain differentiation.
KeywordsSparkling wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomycodes ludwigii Schizosaccharomyces pombe Aging on lees
This work was funded by Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (AGL2013-40503-R and AGL2013-47706-R). The authors would like to thank J. A. Sánchez (Department of Chemistry and Food Technology) for their excellent technical assistance. The authors are also grateful to the accredited Estación Enológica de Haro laboratory, where the biogenic amines and amino acids analysis were performed, especially to Montserrat Iñiguez and Elena Melendez.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- 1.Ribéreau-Gayon P, Dubourdieu D, Donèche B, Lonvaud A (2006) 14. Other winemaking methods. Anonymous handbook of enology, the microbiology of wine and vinifications, 2nd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 458–463Google Scholar
- 2.Suárez-Lepe JA, Iñigo Leal B (2004) Microbiología Enológica, Fundamentos de Vinificación, 4th edn. Mundi-Prensa, p 634Google Scholar
- 3.Jackson RS (2008) 7. Fermentation: prefermentation practices and biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation.Anonymous wine science: principles and applications. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 348–374Google Scholar
- 4.Estela-Escalante W, Rychtera M, Melzoch K, Hatta-Sakoda B, Ludeña-Cervantes Z, Sarmiento-Casavilca V, Chaquilla-Quilca G (2011) Tip Rev Espec Cienc Quím Biol, 14:12–23Google Scholar
- 16.Glories Y (1984) Conn Vigne et Vin 18:195–217Google Scholar
- 17.Glories Y (1984) Conn Vigne et Vin 18:253–271Google Scholar
- 19.Lambrechts M, Pretorius I (2000) S Afr J Enol Vitic 21:97–129Google Scholar
- 20.Anonymous, OIV (2016) International Code of Oenological Practices, 2016 Issue. http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/2696/code-2016-en.pdf
- 21.Vasserot Y, Caillet S, Maujean A (1997) Am J Enol Vitic 48:433–437Google Scholar
- 24.Benito S, Palomero F, Gálvez L, Morata A, Calderón F, Palmero D, Suárez-Lepe JA (2014) Food Technol Biotech 52:376–382Google Scholar
- 25.Anonymous, OIV (2011) Maximum acceptable limits of various substances contained in wine, 2011 Issue. http://www.oiv.int/js/lib/pdfjs/web/viewer.html?file=/public/medias/2601/oiv-ma-c1-01.pdf
- 31.Lehtonen P (1996) Am J Enol Vitic 47:127–133Google Scholar
- 36.Romano P, Capece A, Poeta C (2007) Bulletin de l’OIV, pp 80–91Google Scholar
- 38.Granchi L, Romano P, Mangani S, Guerrini S, Vincenzini M (2005) Bull l’OIV Off Int Vigne Vin 78:595–610Google Scholar