Determination of alkylphenols, phenylphenols, bisphenol A, parabens, organophosphorus pesticides and triclosan in different cereal-based foodstuffs by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

  • Abdelmonaim Azzouz
  • Laura Palacios Colón
  • Lamia Hejji
  • Evaristo BallesterosEmail author
Research Paper


The high toxicity of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has promoted the development of effective techniques for their separation and detection in various types of matrices. In this work, we developed a method for the rapid, reliable determination of 24 EDCs from six different families of organic compounds (viz. alkylphenols, phenylphenols, bisphenol A, parabens, organophosphorus pesticides and triclosan) in cereal-based foodstuffs. The target compounds were subjected to ultrasound-assisted extraction with methanol, cleaned up and preconcentrated by automated solid-phase extraction, and derivatized for their determination by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS). The method features low limits of detection (0.423 ng/kg), good precision (3.87.2%) and recoveries from 82% to 105%. The proposed method was used to analyse 12 samples of products purchased in Andalusia (Spain). A total of 14 analytes were detected in most of the samples. In any case, their concentrations (3.8–620 ng/kg) were all lower than the applicable maximum residue limits.


Endocrine disrupting chemicals Cereal-based foodstuffs Ultrasound-assisted extraction Automated solid-phase extraction Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry 



This work was funded by Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO, Grant CTQ-2015-71321) and partly co-funded by Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2020_2491_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (272 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 272 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, E.P.S. of LinaresUniversity of JaénJaénSpain
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Abdelmalek EssaadiTétouanMorocco

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