Facile fabrication of a novel disposable pencil graphite electrode for simultaneous determination of promising immunosuppressant drugs mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus in human biological fluids

  • Mater H. Mahnashi
  • Ashraf M. Mahmoud
  • Saad A. Alkahtani
  • Ramadan Ali
  • Mohamed M. El-WekilEmail author
Research Paper


An innovative electrochemical sensor was proposed for simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil (Mph) and tacrolimus (TAC) for the first time. A novel sensor based on electro-polymerization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a novel Cu-1N-allyl-2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole metal organic framework (Cu-ADPPI MOF) on disposable pencil graphite electrode (dPGE). Many techniques were used to characterize the electrochemical activity and surface structure of the fabricated sensor. The proposed sensor exhibited good catalytic performance towards Mph and TAC oxidation due to the synergistic effect. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor has achieved a linear range of 0.85–155 × 10−8 M and 1.1–170.0 × 10−8 M with LODs of 0.28 × 10−8 M and 0.36 × 10−8 M for Mph and TAC, respectively. The designated sensor showed good reproducibility, repeatability, stability, and selectivity for the determination of Mph and TAC. Moreover, the simultaneous determination of Mph and TAC in different human biological fluids was carried out with acceptable results. As a result, the proposed sensor opens a new venue for the use of electro-polymerized MOFs in combination with other conductive materials such as MWCNTs for electrochemical sensing of different analytes with the desired sensitivity and selectivity.

Graphical abstract

Construction of disposable graphite electrode, based on electro-deposition of multilayer films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a new generation of Cu-MOFs, for simultaneous analysis of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for the first time


Mycophenolate mofetil Tacrolimus Cu-ADPPI MOFs MWCNTs Disposable pencil graphite electrode Human biological samples 


Funding information

The authors thank the Deanship of Scientific Research, Najran University, for funding the work, Project Code [nu/mid/16/039].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The experiment complied with the guidelines of the Egyptian regulations and approved by the Institutional Human Ethics Committee, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. Informed consent of all individual participants’ biological samples was obtained from Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt.

Supplementary material

216_2019_2245_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1098 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mater H. Mahnashi
    • 1
  • Ashraf M. Mahmoud
    • 1
    • 2
  • Saad A. Alkahtani
    • 3
  • Ramadan Ali
    • 4
  • Mohamed M. El-Wekil
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of PharmacyNajran UniversityNajranKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of PharmacyAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of PharmacyNajran UniversityNajranKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of PharmacyAl-Azhar UniversityAssiutEgypt

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