Facile fabrication of a novel disposable pencil graphite electrode for simultaneous determination of promising immunosuppressant drugs mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus in human biological fluids
- 69 Downloads
An innovative electrochemical sensor was proposed for simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil (Mph) and tacrolimus (TAC) for the first time. A novel sensor based on electro-polymerization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a novel Cu-1N-allyl-2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole metal organic framework (Cu-ADPPI MOF) on disposable pencil graphite electrode (dPGE). Many techniques were used to characterize the electrochemical activity and surface structure of the fabricated sensor. The proposed sensor exhibited good catalytic performance towards Mph and TAC oxidation due to the synergistic effect. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor has achieved a linear range of 0.85–155 × 10−8 M and 1.1–170.0 × 10−8 M with LODs of 0.28 × 10−8 M and 0.36 × 10−8 M for Mph and TAC, respectively. The designated sensor showed good reproducibility, repeatability, stability, and selectivity for the determination of Mph and TAC. Moreover, the simultaneous determination of Mph and TAC in different human biological fluids was carried out with acceptable results. As a result, the proposed sensor opens a new venue for the use of electro-polymerized MOFs in combination with other conductive materials such as MWCNTs for electrochemical sensing of different analytes with the desired sensitivity and selectivity.
KeywordsMycophenolate mofetil Tacrolimus Cu-ADPPI MOFs MWCNTs Disposable pencil graphite electrode Human biological samples
The authors thank the Deanship of Scientific Research, Najran University, for funding the work, Project Code [nu/mid/16/039].
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The experiment complied with the guidelines of the Egyptian regulations and approved by the Institutional Human Ethics Committee, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. Informed consent of all individual participants’ biological samples was obtained from Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt.
- 8.Allison AC, Eugui EM. Purine metabolism and immunosuppressive effects of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Clin Transpl. 1996;10:77.Google Scholar
- 10.Undre NA, Van Hooff J, Christiaans M, Vanrenterghem Y, Donck J, Heeman U, et al. Pharmacokinetics of FK 506 and mycophenolic acid after the administration of a FK 506-based regimen in combination with mycophenolate mofetil in kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1998;30(4):1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Amardeep, Bande MS, Agarwal S. Validated spectrophotometric determination of tacrolimus in marketed formulation. IOSR J Pharm. 2012;2:317.Google Scholar
- 15.Kumar P, Mishra V, Verma S, Bhatia A. Development of RP- HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. J Mater Environ Sci. 2018;9:1357.Google Scholar
- 16.Majnooni MB, Gholivand MB, Khodadadian M, Afnanzade N, Bahrami G. Electroreduction of tacrolimus as immunosuppressant agent at hanging mercury drop electrode: application to determination in pharmaceutical formulation. J Rep Pharmaceut Sci. 2012;1:41.Google Scholar
- 18.Madrakian T, Soleimani M, Afkhami A. Simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil and its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid, by differential pulse voltammetry using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2014;42:38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Liu LT, Zhou YL, Liu S, Xu MT. The applications of metal organic frameworks in electrochemical sensors. Chem Electro Chem. 2018;5:6.Google Scholar
- 23.Dong BX, Chen L, Zhang SY, Ge J, Song L, Tian H, et al. The first tritopic bridging ligand 1, 3, 5-tris (4-carboxyphenyl)-benzene (H3BTB) functionalized porous polyoxometalate-based metal–organic framework (POMOF): from design, synthesis to electrocatalytic properties. Dalton Trans. 2015;44:1435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.El-Wekil MM, Mahmoud AM, Marzouk AA, Alkahtani SA, Ali R. A novel molecularly imprinted sensing platform based on MWCNTs/AuNPs decorated 3D starfish like hollow nickel skeleton as a highly conductive nanocomposite for selective and ultrasensitive analysis of a novel pan-genotypic inhibitor velpatasvir in body fluids. J Mol Liq. 2018;271:105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.El-Wekil MM, Mahmoud AM, Marzouk AA, Alkahtani SA, Ali R. A facile synthesis of 3D NiFe2O4 nanospheres anchored on a novel ionic liquid modified reduced graphene oxide for electrochemical sensing of ledipasvir: application to human pharmacokinetic study. Biosens Bioelectron. 2018;109:164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar