Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 28, pp 7551–7562 | Cite as

HS-SPME-GC-MS approach for the analysis of volatile salivary metabolites and application in a case study for the indirect assessment of gut microbiota

  • Beatrice Campanella
  • Massimo Onor
  • Tommaso Lomonaco
  • Edoardo Benedetti
  • Emilia BramantiEmail author
Research Paper


In this work, a straightforward analytical approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of salivary volatile organic compounds without any prior derivatization step. With a sample volume of 500 μL, optimal conditions were achieved by allowing the sample to equilibrate for 10 min at 50 °C and then extracting the samples for 10 min at the same temperature, using a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The method allowed the simultaneous identification and quantification of 20 compounds in sample headspace, including short-chain fatty acids and their derivatives which are commonly analysed after analyte derivatization. The proof of applicability of the methodology was performed with a case study regarding the analysis of the dynamics of volatile metabolites in saliva of a single subject undergoing 5-day treatment with rifaximin antibiotic. Non-stimulated saliva samples were collected over 3 weeks from a nominally healthy volunteer before, during, and after antibiotic treatment. The variations of some metabolites, known to be produced by the microbiota and by bacteria that are susceptible to antibiotics, suggest that the study of the dynamics of salivary metabolites can be an excellent indirect method for analysing the gut microbiota. This approach is novel from an analytical standpoint, and it encourages further studies combining saliva metabolite profiles and gut microbiota dynamics.

Graphical abstract


Volatile organic compounds Microbiota HS-SPME-GC-MS method Saliva 



This work is dedicated to Dr Giovanni Battista Gervasi of Laboratori Baldacci, Pisa (Italy), who believed in the reliability of saliva analysis and in its potentialities in drug development.

Compliance with ethical standards

The study was conducted under approved Institutional Review protocol in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and in accordance with the ethical standards. All the volunteer donors provided written informed consent before study entry.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beatrice Campanella
    • 1
  • Massimo Onor
    • 1
  • Tommaso Lomonaco
    • 2
  • Edoardo Benedetti
    • 3
  • Emilia Bramanti
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R.Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds-ICCOMPisaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Industrial ChemistryUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  3. 3.Haematology Unit, Department of OncologyAzienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, University of PisaPisaItaly

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