Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 26, pp 7039–7049 | Cite as

Graphene oxide composites for magnetic solid-phase extraction of twelve quinolones in water samples followed by MALDI-TOF MS

  • Hong-zhi Tang
  • Yong-hui Wang
  • Shuang Li
  • Jin Wu
  • Jun-wen Li
  • Huan-ying ZhouEmail author
  • Zhi-xian GaoEmail author
Research Paper


Antibiotic compounds in natural waters are normally present at low concentrations. In this paper, an easy and highly sensitive screening method using graphene oxide–functionalized magnetic composites (GO@NH2@Fe3O4) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was established for twelve quinolone antibiotics. GO@NH2@Fe3O4 composites were utilized as adsorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction. This method combines the advantages of magnetic solid-phase extraction and MALDI-TOF MS, which allows for fast detection of quinolones at low concentrations. To improve absorption efficiency, the following parameters were individually optimized: sample acidity, extraction time, amount of adsorbent used, eluent used, and desorption time. Under the optimum conditions, the established method gave a low detection limit of 0.010 mg/L and allowed the high-throughput screening of twelve quinolone antibiotics (enoxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, fleroxacin, gatifloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, and lomefloxacin). The proposed method, having an easily prepared sorbent with a high affinity for quinolones and a convenient, high-throughput detection step, has been shown to have merit for the detection of antibiotics in water samples.

Graphical abstract

Schematic illustration of the (A) preparation of GO@NH2@Fe3O4 and (B) operating procedure for the MSPE and MALDI-TOF MS detection of QNs


MALDI-TOF MS Magnetic solid-phase extraction Graphene oxide Quinolones High-throughput screening Magnetic composites 


Funding information

This work is a part of the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2017YFF0211301 and 2017YFC1601101) and the Tianjin Scientific and Technology Support Program Funding Agency (No. 16YFZCNC00730).

Compliance with ethical standards

The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2019_2081_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.5 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1505 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control Technology for Environment and Food SafetyTianjin Institute of Environmental & Operational MedicineTianjinChina

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