Wine markers in archeological potteries: detection by GC-MS at ultratrace levels
The detection of organic residues that remain absorbed into the pores of ceramic artifacts constitutes a source of information regarding their management. Taking into account the poor conservation state of the potteries and the low amount of the organic tracers together with the main drawbacks to get the relevant information concerning different aspects of past societies, the detection of organic biomarkers is still an analytical challenge. In this work, an improved analytical methodology to maximize the recovery of organic markers related to wine in archeological ceramics is presented. The developed method consists on the extraction of wine-related organic compounds including tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, citric acid, and syringic acid by means of ultrasonic probe-assisted extraction (UPAE) followed by a preconcentration step by mixed-mode strong anion exchange and reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a derivatization step prior to analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Finally, the method was applied to real archeological ceramic fragments (two dolia), suspected to have been used to store wine, together with organic residues found inside two amphorae from Zaragoza (Spain).
KeywordsWine Organic markers Archeological ceramics Mixed-mode solid-phase extraction Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Laura Blanco-Zubiaguirre is grateful to the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) for her post-doctoral fellowship (DOKBERRI 2018-II).
This work has been financially supported the Government of the Basque Country (Research Groups of Excellence, Consolidated Groups Program, ref. IT-742-13).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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