An electrochemiluminescence biosensor for the detection of soybean agglutinin based on carboxylated graphitic carbon nitride as luminophore

  • Cong Zhang
  • Fangxin Hu
  • Han Zhang
  • Shihong ChenEmail author
  • Ruo Yuan
Research Paper


As an important glycoprotein of the lectin family, soybean agglutinin (SBA) is an anti-nutritional factor with considerable toxic and side effects and plays a significant role in tumor analysis. In order to achieve the sensitive detection of SBA, a sandwich-structured electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was constructed using carboxylated carbon nitride (C-g-C3N4) as luminophore and D-galactosamine (galM) as a recognition element. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) for capturing the galM via Au-N bond, and further capturing the target SBA by specific recognition between galM and SBA. In the presence of SBA, the composite C-g-C3N4-galM was immobilized onto the electrode. With the increase in the concentration of SBA, the ECL signal from C-g-C3N4 increased, thus achieving a signal-on detection of SBA. The linear range of the biosensor was 1.0 ng/mL~10 μg/mL and detection limit for SBA was as low as 0.33 ng/mL. In this construction strategy, C-g-C3N4 not only acted as an excellent signal probe, but also as an immobilization matrix to easily achieve a high loading of the small molecule recognition element galM. This strategy provides a simple alternative SBA detection platform.

Graphical abstract


Electrochemiluminescence Carboxylated carbon nitride Soybean agglutinin Glycoprotein 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21775122, 21775123, 51473136, 21575116, 21705115), Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing City (cstc2018jcyjAX0693) China, Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (BK20170378), Natural Science Research Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (17KJB150036), and Key Laboratory of Sensor Analysis of Tumor Marker, Ministry of Education, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (SATM201604).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cong Zhang
    • 1
  • Fangxin Hu
    • 2
  • Han Zhang
    • 1
  • Shihong Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ruo Yuan
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Materials Science & DevicesSuzhou University of Science and TechnologySuzhouChina

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