Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 20, pp 5159–5174 | Cite as

Western blot analysis of fermented-hydrolyzed foods utilizing gluten-specific antibodies employed in a novel multiplex competitive ELISA

  • Rakhi PandaEmail author
  • Eric A. E. Garber
Research Paper


Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated gluten-specific antibodies (G12, R5, 2D4, MIoBS, and Skerritt), from nine commercial gluten ELISA test kits, previously utilized in the development of a multiplex competitive ELISA for the detection of fermented-hydrolyzed gluten, were utilized in western blot analyses of 59 fermented-hydrolyzed foods from four food groups (beer, soy-based sauces, vinegar, and sourdough bread). The protein/peptide profiles generated by the nine gluten-specific antibodies varied in size distribution and intensity dependent on the type of food, with minor differences between related products. Cluster analysis of the estimated gluten concentration values (based on western blot band intensities relative to intact gluten standards at 2.5 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) and that of the relative response of the nine gluten-specific antibodies to different gluten proteins/peptides, distinguished among the different categories of fermented-hydrolyzed foods; comparable to what was observed in the multiplex competitive ELISA. Further, unlike the competitive ELISA, the western blot analyses distinguished between the presence of antigenic proteinaceous materials and false positives due to the presence of binding inhibitors (as observed with four soy-based sauces and one vinegar). Limitations of western blot analysis often include lower sensitivity than the comparable competitive ELISA and problems quantitating gluten-derived peptides and proteins. As a result, western blot analysis provides an orthogonal approach that can be used to both confirm the multiplex competitive ELISA while also providing additional insight into the protein/peptide profile of fermented-hydrolyzed foods.

Graphical abstract


Gluten Fermentation Western blot Detection 



Appreciation is expressed to Dr. Lauren S. Jackson, FDA, for providing invaluable insights into the various manufacturing processes associated with production of fermented-hydrolyzed foods.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2019_1893_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.2 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 2208 kb)


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Office of Regulatory ScienceCenter for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), FDACollege ParkUSA

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