A review of analytical platforms for accurate bile acid measurement
- 354 Downloads
Bile acids are acidic steroids which help in lipid absorption, act as signaling molecules, and are key intermediate molecules between host and gut microbial metabolism. Perturbations in the circulating bile acid pool can lead to dysregulated metabolic and immunological function which may be associated with liver and intestinal disease. Bile acids have chemically diverse structures and are present in a broad range of concentrations in a wide variety of samples with complex biological matrices. Advanced analytical methods are therefore required to identify and accurately quantify individual bile acids. Though enzymatic determination of total bile acid is most popular in clinical laboratories, these methods provide limited information about individual bile acids. Advanced analytical methods such as gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are highly informative techniques which help in identification and quantification of individual bile acids in complex biological matrices. Here, we review the detection technologies currently used for bile acid identification and quantification. We further discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these analytical techniques with respect to sensitivity, specificity, robustness, and ease of use.
KeywordsBile acid Mass spectrometry Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Gas chromatography Liquid chromatography Enzymatic
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 18.Shi Y, Xiong J, Sun D, Liu W, Wei F, Ma S, et al. Simultaneous quantification of the major bile acids in artificial Calculus bovis by high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization and its application in quality control. J Sep Sci. 2015;38(16):2753–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Li Y, Zhang X, Chen J, Feng C, He Y, Shao Y, et al. Targeted metabolomics of sulfated bile acids in urine for the diagnosis and grading of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Genes Dis. 2018.Google Scholar
- 34.Bootsma AH, Overmars H, van Rooij A, van Lint AE, Wanders RJ, van Gennip AH, et al. Rapid analysis of conjugated bile acids in plasma using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application for selective screening of peroxisomal disorders. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1999;22(3):307–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Haag M, Hofmann U, Murdter TE, Heinkele G, Leuthold P, Blank A, et al. Quantitative bile acid profiling by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry: monitoring hepatitis B therapy by a novel Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide inhibitor. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015;407(22):6815–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Krautbauer S, Liebisch G. LC-MS/MS analysis of bile acids. Methods Mol Biol. 1730;2018:103–10.Google Scholar
- 40.Plumb RS, Rainville PD, Potts WB, 3rd, Johnson KA, Gika E, Wilson ID. Application of ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to profiling rat and dog bile. J Proteome Res 2009;8(5):2495–2500.Google Scholar
- 44.Bobeldijk I, Hekman M, de Vries-van der Weij J, Coulier L, Ramaker R, Kleemann R, et al. Quantitative profiling of bile acids in biofluids and tissues based on accurate mass high resolution LC-FT-MS: compound class targeting in a metabolomics workflow. J. Chromatogr B Anal Technol Biomed Life Sci 2008;871(2):306–313.Google Scholar
- 63.Nunes de Paiva MJ, #xe9, Menezes H, Costa C, Cardeal ZDL. Microwave-assisted derivatization of bile acids for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination. ISRN Anal. Chem. 2013;2013:6.Google Scholar
- 65.Ijare OB, Bezabeh T, Albiin N, Bergquist A, Arnelo U, Lindberg B, et al. Simultaneous quantification of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids, total bile acids, and choline-containing phospholipids in human bile using 1H NMR spectroscopy. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;53(3):667–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar