Elemental analysis and imaging of sunscreen fingermarks by X-ray fluorescence
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Chemical composition in fingermarks could provide useful information for forensic studies and applications. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of analysis and imaging of fingermarks via elements by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and commercial X-ray fluorescence (XRF). As a proof of concept, we chose four brands of sunscreens to make fingermarks on different substrates, including plastic film, glass, paper, and silicon wafer. We obtained an evident image of fingermarks via zinc and titanium by XRF methods. In addition, the ratios of element concentrations in sunscreen fingermarks were obtained, which were in accordance with the results obtained by acid digestion and ICP-OES analysis. In comparison, commercial XRF offers the most advantages in terms of non-destructive detection, easy accessibility, fast element images, and broad applicability. The possibility to acquire fingermark images simultaneously with element information opens up new avenues for forensic science.
KeywordsFingermark X-ray fluorescence Elemental imaging Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence
The SRXRF beam time was granted by 4W1B end station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The staff members of 4W1B are acknowledged for their support in measurements and data reduction. The authors are grateful to Dr. C. Derrick Quarles for his help in LIBS experiments.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11505194, U1432241, and 11575209), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0201604), and the fund of Key Laboratory of Trace Science and Technology, Ministry of Public Security (No. 2017FMKFKT07).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Dr. QQ Yan is an employee of Bruker Scientific Technology Co. Ltd. (Shanghai) who helped to analyze some fingermarks by XRF. No other conflict of interest is reported.
The study protocol conformed to the ethical guidelines of Chinese Academy of Sciences and was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Informed consent was obtained from the volunteers who provides the fingermarks and approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
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