A simple colorimetric probe based on anti-aggregation of AuNPs for rapid and sensitive detection of malathion in environmental samples
- 33 Downloads
In this study, a simple colorimetric probe was developed for rapid and highly sensitive detection of malathion based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) anti-aggregation mechanism. A certain amount of NaOH can cause the aggregation of citrate-stabilized AuNPs due to the electrostatic interactions, and the color of AuNP solution changes from wine-red to gray. While in the presence of malathion, malathion is easily hydrolyzed in a strong alkali environment (pH > 9), followed by the production of a mass of negative charges, and thus the aggregated AuNPs turns to well-dispersed and the color of AuNP solution changes from gray to wine-red. This characteristic change can be visualized with the naked eye and quantitatively detected by an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. Under optimized conditions, this probe exhibited a linear response to malathion in the concentration range of 0.05–0.8 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 11.8 nM. The probe also showed good specificity for malathion detection in the presence of other interfering pesticide residues. Furthermore, the probe was successfully employed to detect malathion in environmental samples, with a recovery of 94–107% and a relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 8%. The results demonstrated that the proposed colorimetric probe based on anti-aggregation of AuNPs could be used for quantitative analysis of malathion and provided great potential for malathion determination in environmental samples.
KeywordsColorimetric probe Gold nanoparticles Anti-aggregation Malathion Environmental samples
This research was financially supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2017M612399), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31671581), the Science and Technology Project of Henan Province (No. 182102110427 and 182102110250), the Science and Technology Innovation Project of Henan Agricultural University (No. KJCX2018A09), and the Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province (No. 162300410143).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Eto M. Organophosphorus pesticides. 1st edition, CRC press; 2018.Google Scholar
- 2.Wilson JD. Toxicological profile for malathion. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 2003.Google Scholar
- 3.GB 2763-2016. National food safety standard-Maximum residue limits for pesticides in food, published by China Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China, and National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China; 2016.Google Scholar
- 4.Berijani S, Assadi Y, Anbia M, Hosseini MRM, Aghaee E. Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection: very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1123(1):1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Brito NM, Navickiene S, Polese L, Jardim EFG, Abakerli RB, Ribeiro ML. Determination of pesticide residues in coconut water by liquid–liquid extraction and gas chromatography with electron-capture plus thermionic specific detection and solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr A. 2002;957(2):201–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Zhao J, Nguyen SC, Ye R, Ye B, Weller H, Somorjai GA, et al. A comparison of photocatalytic activities of gold nanoparticles following plasmonic and interband excitation and a strategy for harnessing interband hot carriers for solution phase photocatalysis. ACS Central Sci. 2017;3(5):482–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Newhart KL. Environmental fate of malathion. California Environmental Protection Agency, 2006.Google Scholar
- 33.Fest C, Schmidt KJ. The chemistry of organophosphorus pesticides: reactivity-synthesis -mode of action-toxicology. Heidelberg: Springer Berlin; 2012.Google Scholar