Advertisement

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 12, pp 2577–2585 | Cite as

Acetylcholinesterase-functionalized two-dimensional photonic crystal for the sensing of G-series nerve agents

  • Fenglian Qi
  • Chunxiao Yan
  • Zihui MengEmail author
  • Shuguang Li
  • Jiayu Xu
  • Xiaochun Hu
  • Min Xue
Research Paper
  • 69 Downloads

Abstract

G-series nerve agents, such as sarin, tabun, and soman, would cause tremendous harm in military and terrorist attacks, so it is necessary to develop a simple method for the rapid and efficient detection of these hazardous substances. We have developed a tunable acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-functionalized two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PhC) for the detection of a real nerve agent, sarin. In accordance with the 2D PhC previously prepared by our group, the AChE-functionalized 2D PhC was optimized by adjustment of the amount of monomer in the hydrogel, which not only increased the sensitivity of the 2D PhC, with the detection limit decreasing by two orders of magnitude, but also ensured the structural color spanned the whole visible region in the detection range. A linear relationship between the logarithm of the sarin concentration and the particle spacing of the AChE-functionalized 2D PhC was observed from 7.1 × 10-17 to 7.1 × 10-4 mol/L. The AChE-functionalized 2D PhC also responded to mimics of G-series nerve agents, including dimethyl methylphosphonate, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, and isodipropyl methylphosphonate, to various degrees. The proposed 2D-PhC hydrogel has potential for low-cost, trace-level, and on-site monitoring of other G-series nerve agents.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Photonic crystal Sarin Acetylcholinesterase G-series nerve agents 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 21375009 and U1530141).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2019_1700_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (751 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 750 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Hwang HM, Hwang E, Kim D, Lee H. Mesoporous non-stacked graphene-receptor sensor for detecting nerve agents. Sci Rep. 2016;6:1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep33299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sayago I, Matatagui D, Fernandez MJ, Fontecha JL, Jurewicz I, Garriga R, et al. Graphene oxide as sensitive layer in Love-wave surface acoustic wave sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants. Talanta. 2016;148:393–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2015.10.069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Belger C, Weis JG, Egap E, Swager TM. Colorimetric stimuli-responsive hydrogel polymers for the detection of nerve agent surrogates. Macromolecules. 2015;48(21):7990–4.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.5b01406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Whitaker CM, Derouin EE, O'Connor MB, Whitaker CK, Whitaker JA, Snyder JJ, et al. Smart hydrogel sensor for detection of organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agents. J Macromol Sci A. 2017;54(1):40–6.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10601325.2017.1250313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim TI, Maity SB, Bouffard J, Kim Y. Molecular rotors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants. Anal Chem. 2016;88(18):9259–63.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b02516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singh VV, Kaufmann K, de Avila BEF, Uygun M, Wang J. Nanomotors responsive to nerve-agent vapor plumes. Chem Commun. 2016;52(16):3360–3.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c5cc10670b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    So HS, Angupillai S, Son YA. Prompt liquid-phase visual detection and low-cost vapor-phase detection of DCP, a chemical warfare agent mimic. Sensors Actuators B. 2016;235:447–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2016.05.106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim Y, Jang YJ, Mulay SV, Nguyen TTT, Churchill DG. Fluorescent sensing of a nerve agent simulant with dual emission over wide pH range in aqueous solution. Chem Eur J. 2017;23(32):7785–90.  https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201700975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sung XL, Dahlhauser SD, Anslyn EV. New autoinductive cascade for the optical sensing of fluoride: application in the detection of phosphoryl fluoride nerve agents. J Am Chem Soc. 2017;139(13):4635–8.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b01008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Das AK, Goswami S, Quah CK, Fun HK. Relay recognition of F- and a nerve-agent mimic diethyl cyano-phosphonate in mixed aqueous media: discrimination of diethyl cyanophosphonate and diethyl chlorophosphate by cyclization induced fluorescence enhancement. RSC Adv. 2016;6(22):18711–7.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ra24392k.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang M, He L, Yin Y. Magnetic field guided colloidal assembly. Mater Today. 2013;16(4):110–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2013.04.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang M, Yin Y. Magnetically responsive nanostructures with tunable optical properties. J Am Chem Soc. 2016;138(20):6315–23.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b02346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fenzl C, Hirsch T, Wolfbeis OS. Photonic crystals for chemical sensing and biosensing. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2014;53(13):3318–35.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201307828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhao YJ, Shang LR, Cheng Y, Gu ZZ. Spherical colloidal photonic crystals. Acc Chem Res. 2014;47(12):3632–42.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ar500317s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shang LR, Fu FF, Cheng Y, Wang H, Liu YX, Zhao YJ, et al. Photonic crystal microbubbles as suspension barcodes. J Am Chem Soc. 2015;137(49):15533–9.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b10612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhao YJ, Cheng Y, Shang LR, Wang J, Xie ZY, Gu ZZ. Microfluidic synthesis of barcode particles for multiplex assays. Small. 2015;11(2):151–74.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201401600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang Y, Fu Q, Ge J. Test-paper-like photonic crystal viscometer. Small. 2017;13(13):1603351.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201603351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen W, Shea KJ, Xue M, Qiu L, Lan Y, Meng Z. Self-assembly of the polymer brush-grafted silica colloidal array for recognition of proteins. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409(22):5319–26.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0477-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xu WJ, Wang MS, Li ZW, Wang XJ, Wang YQ, Xing MY, et al. Chemical transformation of colloidal nanostructures with morphological preservation by surface-protection with capping ligands. Nano Lett. 2017;17(4):2713–8.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b00758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jang SH, Koh YD, Kim JH, Park JH, Park CY, Kim SJ, et al. Detection of organophosphates based on surface-modified DBR porous silicon using LED light. Mater Lett. 2008;62(3):552–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2007.06.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen Y, Fegadolli WS, Jones WM, Scherer A, Li M. Ultrasensitive gas-phase chemical sensing based on functionalized photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. ACS Nano. 2014;8(1):522–7.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn4050547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Walker JP, Asher SA. Acetylcholinesterase-based organophosphate nerve agent sensing photonic crystal. Anal Chem. 2005;77(6):1596–600.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac048562e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Walker JP, Kimble KW, Asher SA. Photonic crystal sensor for organophosphate nerve agents utilizing the organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;389(7-8):2115–24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-007-1599-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang X, Mu ZD, Shangguan FQ, Liu R, Pu YP, Yin LH. Simultaneous detection of fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos-methyl with a photonic suspension array. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e66703.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang X, Mu ZD, Shangguan FQ, Liu R, Pu YP, Yin LH. Rapid and sensitive suspension array for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides based on silica-hydrogel hybrid microbeads. J Hazard Mater. 2014;273:287–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.03.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu F, Huang SY, Xue F, Wang YF, Meng ZH, Xue M. Detection of organophosphorus compounds using a molecularly imprinted photonic crystal. Biosens Bioelectron. 2012;32(1):273–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2011.11.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yan CX, Qi FL, Li SG, Xu JY, Liu C, Meng ZH, et al. Functionalized photonic crystal for the sensing of sarin agents. Talanta. 2016;159:412–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.06.045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cai Z, Smith NL, Zhang JT, Asher SA. Two-dimensional photonic crystal chemical and biomolecular sensors. Anal Chem. 2015;87(10):5013–25.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac504679n.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cai Z, Kwak DH, Punihaole D, Hong Z, Velankar SS, Liu X, et al. A photonic crystal protein hydrogel sensor for Candida albicans. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2015;54(44):13036–40.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201506205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Qi F, Lan Y, Meng Z, Yan C, Li S, Xue M, et al. Acetylcholinesterase-functionalized two-dimensional photonic crystals for the detection of organophosphates. RSC Adv. 2018;8(51):29385–91.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RA04953J.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reese CE, Asher SA. Emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization produces highly charged, monodisperse particles for near infrared photonic crystals. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2002;248(1):41–6.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2001.8193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maillard M, Motte L, Ngo AT, Pileni MP. Rings and hexagons made of nanocrystals: a Marangoni effect. J Phys Chem B. 2000;104(50):11871–7.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp002605n.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fanton X, Cazabat AM. Spreading and instabilities induced by a solutal Marangoni effect. Langmuir. 1998;14(9):2554–61.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la971292t.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres V Jr, Feather-Stone RM. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1961;7:88–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(61)90145-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xue F, Meng Z, Qi F, Xue M, Wang F, Chen W, et al. Two-dimensional inverse opal hydrogel for pH sensing. Analyst. 2014;139(23):6192–6.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4an00939h.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhang JT, Wang L, Luo J, Tikhonov A, Kornienko N, Asher SA. 2-D array photonic crystal sensing motif. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133(24):9152–5.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja201015c.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guideline, ICH Harmonised Tripartite, editor. Validation of analytical procedures: text and methodology Q2 (R1). Geneva: International conference on harmonization; 2005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fenglian Qi
    • 1
  • Chunxiao Yan
    • 2
  • Zihui Meng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shuguang Li
    • 2
  • Jiayu Xu
    • 2
  • Xiaochun Hu
    • 2
  • Min Xue
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of NBC DefenceBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations