Carbon isotope compositions of whole wine, wine solid residue, and wine ethanol, determined by EA/IRMS and GC/C/IRMS, can record the vine water status—a comparative reappraisal
Recently, we reported that the carbon isotope composition of the solid residues obtained by freeze-drying white and red wines (δ13CWSR) could be used for tracing the water status of the vines whose grapes were used to produce them. Here, we compare different methods using δ13C values of other wine components, particularly those of whole wine (δ13CWW) obtained by elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) and of wine ethanol (δ13CWEtOH) obtained by gas chromatography/combustion/IRMS (GC/C/IRMS), for their suitability to assess the vine water status. The studied wines were obtained from field-grown cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas, Petite Arvine, and Pinot noir) under different water treatments during the 2009–2014 seasons and were the same wines in which the δ13CWSR was measured previously. The EA/IRMS method for whole wine used two successive EA analytical cycles in each acquisition period to reduce the residence time of the sample capsules in the autosampler. The sample aliquots for the EA/IRMS and GC/C/IRMS analyses were optimized for peak-size differences less than 10% between the sample and reference gas. For all wine varieties, the δ13CWW and δ13CWEtOH values were linearly correlated with the predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) and therefore serve as reliable indicators of vine water status, as do the δ13C values for must sugars and wine solid residues. The strongest negative correlations with Ψpd were for δ13Csugars (r = −0.94, n = 54) and δ13CWEtOH (r = −0.91) and were lower but still highly significant (p < 0.00001) for δ13CWW (r = −0.71) and δ13CWSR (r = −0.70). An evaluation of the advantages and drawbacks of the different methods is presented, showing that the δ13C analysis of wine ethanol by GC/C/IRMS is the most appropriate.
KeywordsCarbon isotope ratio δ13C value Vine water status Whole wine Wine ethanol Wine solid residue
The stable isotope facilities were funded by the University of Lausanne. The authors are very grateful to Fabrice Forenzini and Johannes Rösti for providing bottles of Leytron wines and a standard aqueous solution of wine-derived ethanol.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- 7.van Leeuwen C, Tregoat O, Chone X, Bois B, Pernet D, Gaudillère JP. Vine water status is a key factor in grape ripening and vintage quality for red Bordeaux wine. How can it be assessed for vineyard management purposes? I Int Sci Vigne Vin. 2009;43:121–34.Google Scholar
- 14.van Leeuwen C, Tregoat O, Pernet D, Roby JP, Cellie N, Gaudillère JP. Use of sarbon isotope discrimination on grape sugar as a tool for practical vineyard management. Am J Enol Vitic. 2009;60:394A.Google Scholar
- 15.Jackson RS. Wine science. Principles and applications. New York: Elsevier/Academic Press; 2014.Google Scholar
- 18.Guyon F, van Leeuwen C, Gaillard L, Grand M, Akoka S, Remaud GS, et al. Comparative study of 13C composition in ethanol and bulk dry wine using isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry and by nuclear magnetic resonance as an indicator of vine water status. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015;407:9053–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Schimmelmann A, Qi HP, Coplen TB, Brand WA, Fong J, Meier-Augenstein W, et al. Organic reference materials for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements: caffeines, n-alkanes, fatty acid methyl esters, glycines, L-valines, polyethylenes, and oils. Anal Chem. 2016;88:4294–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Bruno TJ, Lide DR, Rumble JR, editors. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics, 99th edn (Internet Version). Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2018.Google Scholar
- 33.Gilbert A, Silvestre V, Segebarth N, Tcherkez G, Guillou C, Robins RJ, et al. The intramolecular 13C-distribution in ethanol reveals the influence of the CO2-fixation pathway and environmental conditions on the site-specific 13C variation in glucose. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:1104–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar