Programmable RNA-based systems for sensing and diagnostic applications
The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology harnesses the versatility of RNA molecules to generate nature-inspired systems with programmable structure and functionality. Such methodology has therefore gained appeal in the fields of biosensing and diagnostics, where specific molecular recognition and advanced input/output processing are demanded. The use of RNA modules and components allows for achieving diversity in structure and function, for processing information with molecular precision, and for programming dynamic operations on the grounds of predictable non-covalent interactions. When RNA nanotechnology meets bioanalytical chemistry, sensing of target molecules can be performed by harnessing programmable interactions of RNA modules, advanced field-ready biosensors can be manufactured by interfacing RNA-based devices with supporting portable platforms, and RNA sensors can be engineered to be genetically encoded allowing for real-time imaging of biomolecules in living cells. In this article, we report recent advances in RNA-based sensing technologies and discuss current trends in RNA nanotechnology-enabled biomedical diagnostics. In particular, we describe programmable sensors that leverage modular designs comprising dynamic aptamer-based units, synthetic RNA nanodevices able to perform target-responsive regulation of gene expression, and paper-based sensors incorporating artificial RNA networks.
KeywordsRNA aptamers Diagnostics Synthetic biology Toehold switches RNA nanotechnology
A.P. received support from the University of Rome Tor Vergata under the grant “MIRA” no E81I18000200005. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement no 704120 (“MIRNANO”). A.B. is a global Marie Skłodowska-Curie fellow. M.R. and S.R. are supported from a Fondazione Umberto Veronesi “postdoctoral fellowship 2019”.
Compliance with ethical standards
No experiments involving human participants and/or animals have been conducted for this publication.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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