Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 7, pp 1479–1489 | Cite as

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of sapucainha oil (Carpotroche brasiliensis) triacylglycerols comprising straight chain and cyclic fatty acids

  • Habtewold D. Waktola
  • Chadin Kulsing
  • Yada Nolvachai
  • Claudia M. Rezende
  • Humberto R. Bizzo
  • Philip J. MarriottEmail author
Research Paper


Sapucainha oil, which may be used to treat leprosy, comprises straight chain and cyclic fatty acids (FA), and triacylglycerols (TAG). The FA and TAG content of the oil sample was analysed using gas chromatography–electron ionisation mass spectrometry (GC–EIMS). FA analysis was performed after derivatisation to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). For free FA and TAG analysis, the oil sample was dissolved in hexane and injected into a short, high-temperature column, for GC with MS analysis. Free FA and FAME were tentatively identified based on mass spectrum information of their molecular and fragment ions, as well as library matching. Overlapping TAG peaks were deconvoluted based on mass fingerprint data. The FA composition was utilised to predict possible TAG identities. FA residues of TAG were identified based on characteristic fragment ions, such as [M–RCO2]+, [RCO+128]+, [RCO+74]+ and RCO+ where R is the aliphatic hydrocarbon chain. FAME analysis showed that the cyclic FA hydnocarpic (36.1%), chaulmoogric (26.5%) and gorlic (23.6%) acids were the major components. In addition, straight chain FA such as palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids were detected. Palmitic, oleic, hydnocarpic, chaulmoogric and gorlic acids were also detected as free FA in the oil sample. Six groups of TAG peaks were eluted from GC at temperatures ≥330 °C. After deconvolution and mass spectrum analysis, each TAG peak group was revealed to comprise 2 to 5 co-eluted TAG molecules; >18 TAG were identified. These TAG consisted of a mix of both cyclic and straight chain FA, but were mostly derived from cyclic FA.


Sapucainha oil Triacylglycerols Cyclic fatty acids High-temperature GC Mass spectrometry 



HDW acknowledges provision of MGS and DIPRS Scholarships from Monash University. This work was conducted under support from the Australian Research Council and PerkinElmer through ARC Linkage Grant LP150100465. We are grateful for the support from the Brazil funding agencies Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2019_1579_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (4.2 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 4254 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Habtewold D. Waktola
    • 1
  • Chadin Kulsing
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yada Nolvachai
    • 1
  • Claudia M. Rezende
    • 3
  • Humberto R. Bizzo
    • 4
  • Philip J. Marriott
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of ChemistryMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.Chromatographic Separation and Flavor Chemistry Research Unit and Center of Molecular Sensory Science, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Embrapa Agroindústria de AlimentosRio de JaneiroBrazil

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