Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 6, pp 1219–1228 | Cite as

Fully automated method based on on-line molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction for determination of lovastatin in dietary supplements containing red yeast rice

  • Lucie Novosvětská
  • Petr Chocholouš
  • František Švec
  • Hana SklenářováEmail author
Research Paper


A fully automated method for the determination of lovastatin in dietary supplements containing red yeast rice has been developed. It uses a sequential injection analysis system combined with solid-phase extraction applying highly selective molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent. A miniaturized column for on-line extraction was prepared by packing 4.5 mg of the sorbent in a 5.0 × 2.5-mm-i.d. cartridge, which was used in the flow manifold. Sequential injection analysis manifold enabled all steps of lovastatin extraction and continuous spectrophotometric detection at 240 nm. A limit of detection of 60 μg g−1, a limit of quantitation of 200 μg g−1, and a linear calibration range of 200–2000 μg g−1 were achieved. Intra-day and inter-day precision values (RSD) were ≤ 6.7% and ≤ 4.9%, respectively, and method recovery values of spiked red yeast rice extracts at 200, 1000, and 2000 μg g−1 concentration levels were 82.9, 95.2, and 87.7%. Our method was used for determination of lovastatin lactone in four dietary supplements containing red yeast rice as a natural source of lovastatin, also known as monacolin K. The extracted samples were subsequently analyzed by the reference UHPLC-MS/MS method. Statistical comparison of results (F test, t test, α = 0.05) obtained by both methods did not reveal significant difference. A substantial advantage of the new automated approach is high sample throughput thanks to the analysis time of 7.5 min, miniaturization via down-scaling the extraction column, and smaller sample and solvent consumption, as well as reduced generation of waste.

Graphical abstract


Dietary supplements Lovastatin Molecularly imprinted polymer On-line solid-phase extraction Sequential injection analysis 



The authors are grateful to Pavel Svoboda for the preparation of the molecularly imprinted sorbent, to Kateřina Plachká for the UHPLC-MS/MS measurements, and to Ondřej Jung for the statistical data treatment. This work was supported by the project EFSA-CDN (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000841) co-funded by ERDF, and by the Project of the Specific Research, SVV No. 260412.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2018_1554_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (346 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 310 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec KrálovéCharles UniversityHradec KrálovéCzech Republic

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