Advertisement

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 6, pp 1159–1167 | Cite as

Proton-controlled synthesis of red-emitting carbon dots and application for hematin detection in human erythrocytes

  • Yan Jun Ju
  • Na Li
  • Shi Gang Liu
  • Jia Yu Liang
  • Xin Gao
  • Yu Zhu Fan
  • Hong Qun LuoEmail author
  • Nian Bing LiEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

The Red-emitting nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) are synthesized using o-phenylenediamine by a one-step method, and can serve as a fluorescent probe for “turn off” detection of hematin in human red cells. The red-emitting N-CDs can be obtained only in acidic conditions and the emission of the red-emitting N-CDs is pH-dependent, indicating proton-controlled synthesis and emission. The red-emitting N-CDs are 2.7 nm in mean size and have a uniform dispersion and exhibit a high quantum yield (12.8%) and great optical properties. The developed sensing system for hematin displays a linear response from 0.4 to 32 μM with a detection limit of 0.18 μM. Importantly, this fluorescent probe demonstrates a good potential practicability for the quantitative detection of hematin in complex matrixes.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

N-Doped carbon dots Red emission Proton-controlled synthesis Hematin detection Human erythrocytes 

Notes

Funding information

This study received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21675131) and the Innovation Foundation of Chongqing City for Postgraduate (CYB 16053).

Compliance with ethical standards

The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Southwest University, and written informed consent was obtained from all individuals participating in the study prior to the collection of the human blood samples.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2018_1547_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1072 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Wei L, Ma Y, Shi X, Wang Y, Su X, Yu C, et al. Living cell intracellular temperature imaging with biocompatible dye-conjugated carbon dots. J Mater Chem B. 2017;5:3383–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fan YZ, Zhang Y, Li N, Liu SG, Liu T, Li NB, et al. A facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon dots as a label-free fluorescent probe for rapid, selective and sensitive detection of picric acid. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2017;240:949–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yang ST, Cao L, Luo PG, Lu F, Wang X, Wang HF, et al. Carbon dots for optical imaging in vivo. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:11308–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gao X, Ding CQ, Zhu AW, Tian Y. Carbon-dot-based ratiometric fluorescent probe for imaging and biosensing of superoxide anion in live cells. Anal Chem. 2014;86:7071–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gong X, Li Z, Hu Q, Zhou R, Shuang S, Dong C. N,S,P co-doped carbon nanodot fabricated from waste microorganism and its application for label-free recognition of manganese (VII) and l-ascorbic acid and AND logic gate operation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017;9:38761–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li BL, Setyawati MI, Zou HL, Dong JX, Luo HQ, Li NB, et al. Emerging oD transition-metal dichalcogenides for sensors, biomedicine, and clean energy. Small. 2017;13:1700527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ma Y, Zhang Z, Xu Y, Ma M, Chen B, Wei L, et al. A bright carbon-dot-based fluorescent probe for selective and sensitive detection of mercury ions. Talanta. 2016;161:476–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhou J, Yang Y, Zhang CY. A low-temperature solid-phase method to synthesize highly fluorescent carbon nitride dots with tunable emission. Chem Commun. 2013;49:8605–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sun S, Zhang L, Jiang K, Wu A, Lin H. Toward high-efficient red emissive carbon dots: facile preparation, unique properties, and applications as multifunctional theranostic agents. Chem Mater. 2016;28:8659–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miao X, Yan X, Qu D, Li D, Tao FF, Sun Z. Red emissive sulfur, nitrogen codoped carbon dots and their application in ion detection and theraonostics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017;9:18549–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Light WR, Olson JS. Transmembrane movement of heme. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:15623–31.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hargrove MS, Whitaker T, Olson JS, Vali RJ, Mathews AJ. Quaternary structure regulates hemin dissociation from human hemoglobin. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:17385–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aich A, Pan W, Vekilov PG. Thermodynamic mechanism of free heme action on sickle cell hemoglobin polymerization. AICHE J. 2015;61:2861–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Levin G, Cogan U, Levy Y, Mokady S. Riboflavin deficiency and the function and fluidity of rat erythrocyte-membranes. J Nutr. 1990;120:857–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goldstein L, Teng ZP, Zeserson E, Patel M, Regan RF. Hemin induces an iron-dependent, oxidative injury to human neuron-like cells. J Neurosci Res. 2003;73:113–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chou AC, Fitch CD. Hemolysis of mouse erythrocytes by ferriprotoporphyrin IX and chloroquine. Chemotherapeutic implications. J Clin Invest. 1980;66:856–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuross SA, Rank BH, Hebbel RP. Excess heme in sickle erythrocyte inside-out membranes: possible role in thiol oxidation. Blood. 1988;71:876–82.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dutra FF, Alves LS, Rodrigues D, Fernandez PL, Oliveira RB, Golenbock DT, et al. Hemolysis-induced lethality involves inflammasome activation by heme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E4110–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buehler PW, DAgnillo F. Toxicological consequences of extracellular hemoglobin: biochemical and physiological perspectives. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;12:275–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kumar S, Bandyopadhyay U. Free heme toxicity and its detoxification systems in human. Toxicol Lett. 2005;157:175–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Huy NT, Dai TXT, Uyen DT, Sasai M, Harada S, Kamei K. An improved colorimetric method for quantitation of heme using tetramethylbenzidine as substrate. Anal Biochem. 2005;344:289–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crouser ED, Gadd ME, Julian MW, Huff JE, Broekemeier KM, Robbins KA, et al. Quantitation of cytochrome c release from rat liver mitochondria. Anal Biochem. 2003;317:67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Luo D, Huang J. Determination of cytochrome c and other heme proteins using the reduction wave of mercury protoporphyrin IX groups generated by a hydroxylamine induced replacement reaction. Anal Chem. 2009;81:2032–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu SC, Zhai S, Palek J. Detection of hemin release during hemoglobin S denaturation. Blood. 1988;71:1755–8.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mehta VN, Jha S, Basu H, Singhal RK, Kailasa SK. One-step hydrothermal approach to fabricate carbon dots from apple juice for imaging of mycobacterium and fungal cells. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2015;213:434–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang Q, Wei L, Zheng X, Xiao L. Single particle dynamic imaging and Fe3+ sensing with bright carbon dots derived from bovine serum albumin proteins. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ji L, Chen L, Wu P, Gervasio DF, Cai C. Highly selective fluorescence determination of the hematin level in human erythrocytes with no need for separation from bulk hemoglobin. Anal Chem. 2016;88:3935–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lu S, Sui L, Liu J, Zhu S, Chen A, Jin M, et al. Near-infrared photoluminescent polymer-carbon nanodots with two-photon fluorescence. Adv Mater. 2017;29:1603443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu J, Li D, Zhang K, Yang M, Sun H, Yang B. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen-doped conjugated carbonized polymer dots with 31% efficient red emission for in vivo imaging. Small. 2018:1703919.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Song W, Duan W, Liu Y, Ye Z, Chen Y, Chen H, et al. Ratiometric detection of intracellular lysine and pH with one-pot synthesized dual emissive carbon dots. Anal Chem. 2017;89:13626–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lan M, Zhao S, Zhang Z, Yan L, Guo L, Niu G, et al. Two-photon-excited near-infrared emissive carbon dots as multifunctional agents for fluorescence imaging and photothermal therapy. Nano Res. 2017;10:3113–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sun X, Bruckner C, Lei Y. One-pot and ultrafast synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon dots possessing bright dual wavelength fluorescence emission. Nanoscale. 2015;7:17278–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olgun U, Gülfen M. Doping of poly(o-phenylenediamine): spectroscopy, voltammetry, conductivity and band gap energy. React Funct Polym. 2014;77:23–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lu W, Gong X, Nan M, Liu Y, Shuang S, Dong C. Comparative study for N and S doped carbon dots: synthesis, characterization and applications for Fe3+ probe and cellular imaging. Anal Chim Acta. 2015;898:116–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Qu S, Zhou D, Li D, Ji W, Jing P, Han D, et al. Toward efficient orange emissive carbon nanodots through conjugated sp2-domain controlling and surface charges engineering. Adv Mater. 2016;28:3516–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ananthanarayanan A, Wang Y, Routh P, Sk MA, Than A, Lin M, et al. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped graphene quantum dots: synthesis from adenosine triphosphate, optical properties, and cellular imaging. Nanoscale. 2015;7:8159–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nie H, Li M, Li Q, Liang S, Tan Y, Sheng L, et al. Carbon dots with continuously tunable full-color emission and their application in ratiometric pH sensing. Chem Mater. 2014;26:3104–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu J, Lu S, Tang Q, Zhang K, Yu W, Sun H, et al. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanodots with selective antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis. Nanoscale. 2017;9:7135–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yuan F, Ding L, Li Y, Li X, Fan L, Zhou S, et al. Multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dots colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range. Nanoscale. 2015;7:11727–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wu X, Song Y, Yan X, Zhu C, Ma Y, Du D, et al. Carbon quantum dots as fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors for organophosphate pesticides determination. Biosens Bioelectron. 2017;94:292–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang QQ, Chen BB, Zou HY, Li YF, Huang CZ. Inner filter with carbon quantum dots: a selective sensing platform for detection of hematin in human red cells. Biosens Bioelectron. 2018;100:148–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yan Jun Ju
    • 1
  • Na Li
    • 1
  • Shi Gang Liu
    • 1
  • Jia Yu Liang
    • 1
  • Xin Gao
    • 1
  • Yu Zhu Fan
    • 1
  • Hong Qun Luo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nian Bing Li
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations