Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 5, pp 1029–1040 | Cite as

Microwave irradiation followed by zinc oxide based dispersive solid-phase extraction coupled with HPLC for simultaneous extraction and determination of flavonoids in Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki

  • Lujun YinEmail author
  • Xue Zheng
  • Gen Wang
  • Wei WangEmail author
Research Paper


In this study, a sample preparation method involving microwave irradiation followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction was used to extract and separate flavonoids from Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki. Ethyl lactate was selected as the extraction solvent during microwave irradiation. Zinc oxide and ethanol were used as the adsorbents and the eluent, respectively, in dispersive solid-phase extraction. Several experimental parameters affected the extraction performance, such as the extraction solvent and method, the microwave irradiation time, temperature, and solid-to-liquid ratio, the type of adsorbent, the amount of sample solution, the adsorption time and method, and the type and volume of the eluent, and were investigated by single-factor and Box–Behnken design experiments in the pretreatment process. The recommended method was applied to extract flavonoids in Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki. The enriched flavonoids were analyzed for the first time by high-performance liquid chromatography, and seven flavonoids—vitexin, luteolin, wogonoside, apigenin, chrysoeriol, acacetin, and pectolinarigenin—were identified. Additionally, the method exhibited good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9992) for flavonoids under the optimum conditions. Moreover, the relative standard deviation of the intraday and interday precision was less than 3.97%. The mean recoveries for flavonoids were more than 98.10%. This work is the first to report a method to extract, separate, and analyze flavonoids from Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki.

Graphical Abstract

Microwave irradiation followed by ZnO-based dispersive solid-phase extraction for the pretreatment of Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki samples, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis of enriched flavonoids


Ethyl lactate Microwave-irradiation extraction Zinc oxide Dispersive solid-phase extraction Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki High-performance liquid chromatography 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFD0600805) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2572017EA03 and 2572014EA03).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2018_1529_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (4.6 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 4723 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Ministry of EducationNortheast Forestry UniversityHarbinChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center for Development and Utilization of Forest ResourcesNortheast Forestry UniversityHarbinChina
  3. 3.Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of EducationNortheast Forestry UniversityHarbinChina
  4. 4.State Engineering Laboratory of Bio-Resource Eco-UtilizationNortheast Forestry UniversityHarbinChina

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