An ultrasensitive sensor based on quantitatively modified upconversion particles for trace bisphenol A detection
Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals which might cause reproductive and endocrine system diseases, and poses a serious threat to the ecosystem and human health. This paper reports an ultrasensitive sensor for trace BPA detection employing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between modified upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and tetramethylrhodamine. To circumvent the problems of low luminous efficiency of FRET and low sensitivity of sensor, the upconversion nanoparticles with very strong fluorescence efficiency were prepared and quantitatively modified. Results showed that the concentrations of amino groups and streptavidin were 43 nmol/mg and 6.12 μg/mg on the surface of the UCNPs, respectively. Under the optimal detection conditions, the peak intensity of UCNPs at 547 nm was linear with the logarithm of the BPA concentration with the detection limit of 0.05 ng/mL. Without complicated pre-processing, the recoveries were in general between 91.0 and 115.0% in tap water, river water, and disposable paper cup water. Therefore, the proposed sensor is suitable for effective sensing of trace BPA in water samples.
KeywordsSensor Upconversion particles Quantitative modification Bisphenol A
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21477162, 81602896, AWS15J006); the Tianjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology (Grant No. 15JCYBJC51200); the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFF0104903) and Natural Science Fund of Tianjin City (Grant No. 17JCQNJC12500).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
- 1.Tang JF, Zhang Y, Gou J, Ma ZL, Li GN, Man YH, et al. Sol-gel prepared Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped RE2O3 (RE = La, Gd, Lu) nanocrystals: structural characterization and temperature-dependent upconversion behavior. J Alloys Compd. 2018;740:229–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.01.050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Du P, Luo LH, Li WP, Yue QY, Chen HB. Optical temperature sensor based on upconversion emission in Er-doped ferroelectric 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O-3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramic. Appl Phys Lett. 2014;104(15). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4871378.
- 3.Du P, Luo LH, Yu JS. Energy back transfer induced color controllable upconversion emissions in La2MoO6:Er3+/Yb3+ nanocrystals for versatile applications. Part Part Syst Charact. 2018;35(3). https://doi.org/10.1002/ppsc.201700416.
- 4.Watabe Y, Kondo T, Morita M, Tanaka N, Haginaka J, Hosoya K. Determination of bisphenol A in environmental water at ultra-low level by high-performance liquid chromatography with an effective on-line pretreatment device. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1032(1–2):45–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2003.11.079.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.Motoyama A, Suzuki A, Shirota O, Namba R. Direct determination of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in river water by column-switching semi-microcolumn liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 1999;13(21):2204–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0231(19991115)13:21<2204::aid-rcm776>3.0.co;2-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Zhou X, Kramer JP, Calafat AM, Ye X. Automated on-line column-switching high performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of bisphenol A, bisphenol F, bisphenol S, and 11 other phenols in urine. J Chromatogr B Anal Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2014;944:152–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.11.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Wu S, Duan N, Zhu C, Ma X, Wang M, Wang Z. Magnetic nanobead-based immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A using upconversion nanoparticles as multicolor labels. Biosens Bioelectron. 2011;30(1):35–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2011.08.023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Zhang ZLY. An efficient and user-friendly method for the synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb, Er/Tm nanocrystals with controllable shape and upconversion fluorescence. Nanotechnology. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/19/34/345606.
- 34.Wu S, Duan N, Ma X, Xia Y, Wang H, Wang Z, et al. Multiplexed fluorescence resonance energy transfer aptasensor between upconversion nanoparticles and graphene oxide for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins. Anal Chem. 2012;84(14):6263–70. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac301534w.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 35.Chu C-H, Sarangadharan I, Regmi A, Chen Y-W, Hsu C-P, Chang W-H, et al. Beyond the Debye length in high ionic strength solution: direct protein detection with field-effect transistors (FETs) in human serum. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):5256. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05426-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar