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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 1, pp 63–77 | Cite as

Non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose using optical methods for skin spectroscopy—opportunities and recent advances

  • Sven Delbeck
  • Thorsten Vahlsing
  • Steffen Leonhardt
  • Gerald Steiner
  • H. Michael HeiseEmail author
Review

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease with greatly rising patient numbers expected in the future, not only for industrialized countries but also for regions in the developing world. There is a need for efficient therapy, which can be via self-monitoring of blood glucose levels to provide tight glycemic control for reducing the risks of severe health complications. Advancements in diabetes technology can nowadays offer different sensor approaches, even for continuous blood glucose monitoring. Non-invasive blood glucose assays have been promised for many years and various vibrational spectroscopy-based methods of the skin are candidates for achieving this goal. Due to the small spectral signatures of the glucose hidden among a largely variable background, the largest signal-to-noise ratios and multivariate calibration are essential to provide the method applicability for self-monitoring of blood glucose. Besides multiparameter approaches, recently presented devices based on photoplethysmography with wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared range are evaluated for their potential of providing reliable blood glucose concentration predictions.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Non-invasive glucose sensing Vibrational spectroscopy Photoplethysmography Color sensing Multivariate calibration Validation studies 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sven Delbeck
    • 1
  • Thorsten Vahlsing
    • 2
    • 3
  • Steffen Leonhardt
    • 3
  • Gerald Steiner
    • 4
  • H. Michael Heise
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Center for Life SciencesSouth-Westphalia University of Applied SciencesIserlohnGermany
  2. 2.Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Acoustic and Electromagnetic MethodsBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Chair for Medical Information Technology, Helmholtz Institute of Biomedical EngineeringRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Clinical Sensoring and MonitoringTechnical University of DresdenDresdenGermany

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