Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 25, pp 6573–6583 | Cite as

Nanocarbon material-supported conducting poly(melamine) nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for highly sensitive determination of nitrofuran drugs by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

  • Shao-Hua Chiu
  • Ya-Ling Su
  • Anh V. T. Le
  • Shu-Hua ChengEmail author
Research Paper


The toxicity of nitrofuran drugs has attracted great attention, and the reported electroanalytical methods suffered limited sensitivity. In this work, a sensitive electrochemical assay in the cathodic region is developed to determine four nitrofuran derivatives, including nitrofurantoin (NFT), nitrofurazone (NFZ), furaltadone (FTD), and furazolidone (FZD). The screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was used as the electrode substrate, and the sensing surface was composed of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and conducting poly(melamine) (PME). The overoxidation-pretreated MWCNTs affect the surface morphology of the electrodeposited PME and, thus, the interaction with nitrofuran drugs. The characteristics of the nanocomposite-modified electrode surfaces were well characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and surface water contact angle experiments. The nanocomposite-modified electrodes exhibited excellent adsorption and electrochemical reduction of nitrofurans by cyclic voltammetry. The proposed assay exhibited a linear range of sub-micro to micro molar concentrations for the four drugs under the optimized differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) technique. The detection limits were found to be in the nanomolar ranges. The developed assay was applied to detect NFT in two real samples, and the results showed good recoveries that ranged from 99.0 to 104.8% and 98.0 to 103.2% for milk and lake water samples, respectively.

Graphical abstract


Nitrofurans Multi-walled carbon nanotubes Poly(melamine) Adsorption Differential pulse voltammetry 


Funding information

The authors receive financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China under grant MOST 104-2113-M-260-004.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2018_1262_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 2088 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shao-Hua Chiu
    • 1
  • Ya-Ling Su
    • 1
  • Anh V. T. Le
    • 1
  • Shu-Hua Cheng
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistryNational Chi Nan UniversityPuliTaiwan

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