Development of Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Sc mono-element standard solution certified reference materials (GBW08680-08684)
Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Sc mono-element solution certified reference materials (CRMs) with the certified value of 983.3 μg g−1 were developed with high-purity lanthanide oxides by using a novel purity characterization strategy. In the purity characterization process, complexometric titration was first employed to acquire the total metal ion concentration reacting with EDTA. Twenty-seven non-lanthanide impurities were measured by an external ICP-MS method with three multi-element calibration solution CRMs as calibrants. To avoid REO(H)+ interference from the main lanthanide matrix, two strategies namely LA-ICP-MS and MD-ICP-MS were optimized and used for the measurement of 15 rare earth impurities. The purity of lanthanide oxide material was obtained by subtracting the 42 impurities from the total metal ions reacting with EDTA. After purity characterization, the solution CRMs were prepared with a gravimetric method, and the CRM values were verified with corresponding NIST rare earth solution SRMs. It was shown that 15 units with duplicate analysis are enough to demonstrate the homogeneity of these candidate reference materials. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in stability tests for 24 months. The final uncertainties of the CRMs were evaluated by combining uncertainty contributions including the sample characterization and gravimetric preparation (uchar), between-bottle homogeneity (ubb), and stability (us). The relative expanded uncertainties of the five CRMs are 0.5%. These CRMs are primarily intended for use in the measurement and calibration procedures of lanthanide analysis in environmental and geological areas. Most importantly, the purity characterization strategy of this study will provide a new idea for the certification of high-purity and mono-element solution reference materials.
KeywordsMono-element standard solution Certified reference material Lanthanide Purity characterization
The authors received financial support from “National Key Research and Development Program” (No. 2017YFF0205402) and “National Natural Science Foundation” (No. 11475163).
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with humans or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Wang K. Trace elements in life science. Beijing: China Metrology Publishing House; 1991.Google Scholar
- 2.Guo BS, Zhu WM, Xiong BK, Ji YJ, Liu Z, Wu ZM. Rare earths in agriculture. Beijing: China Agricultural Science and Technology Press; 1990.Google Scholar
- 9.Perna L, Bocci F, Aldave de las Heras L, De Pablo J, Betti M. Studies on simultaneous separation and determination of lanthanides and actinides by ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom. 2002;17:1166–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.International Organization for Standardization. ISO/IEC 17025: general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. 2nd ed. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization; 2005.Google Scholar
- 13.Li YQ, Wang DD. Development of rare earth solution CRMs. Acta Metall Sin. 2003;4:348–51.Google Scholar
- 14.Carter AK, Dussubieux L. Geologic provenience analysis of agate and carnelian beads using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): a case study from Iron Age Cambodia and Thailand. J Archaeol Sci Rep. 2016;6:332–41.Google Scholar
- 18.Han GJ, Wu X, Tong J. Determination of 14 trace rare earth impurities in high-purity CeO2 by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with membrane desolvation. Journal of The Chinese Rare Earth Society. 2009;28:137–44.Google Scholar
- 19.Wu B, Chao JB. Assay of arsenic trioxide by high-precision coulometric titrimetry. Modern Scientific Instruments. 2009;3:69–72.Google Scholar
- 20.International Organization for Standardization. ISO guide 35: reference materials-general and statistical principles for certification. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization; 2006.Google Scholar
- 21.EURACHEM. Quantifying uncertainty in analytical measurement. Teddington: LGC; 1995.Google Scholar
- 22.Chemistry division of Hangzhou University. Handbook of Analytical Chemistry, 1st edition. Beijing:Chemical Industry Publishing House; 1980.Google Scholar
- 23.Meng F, Shi L. Rapid titrimetric determination of total rare earths contents in Pb-RE master alloy. Metall Anal. 2000;20:50–1.Google Scholar
- 25.International Organization for Standardization. Evaluation of measurement data—guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. Geneva: ISO; 2008.Google Scholar