Effect of alcohol use disorder on cellular aging
Human telomeres consist of tandem repeats at chromosome ends which protect chromosomal DNA from degradation. Telomere shortening occurs as part of natural aging; however, life stressors, smoking, drug use, BMI, and psychiatric disorders could disrupt cell aging and affect telomere length (TL). In this context, studies have evaluated the effects of alcohol consumption on TL; however, results have been inconsistent, which may reflect diverse drinking cut-offs and categorizations.
To help clarify this, the present study addresses the association of TL with alcohol use disorder (AUD), drinking behaviors, lifetime stress, and chronological age.
TL was quantified as the telomere to albumin ratio (T/S ratio) obtained from peripheral blood DNA using the quantitative PCR assay, from 260 participants with AUD and 449 non-dependent healthy controls (HC) from an existing National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) database.
AUD participants showed shorter TL compared to HC with both, age, and AUD, as independent predictors as well as a significant AUD with age interaction effect on TL. TL was also associated with impulsiveness in AUD participants. We did not observe an association between TL and chronicity of alcohol use, alcohol doses ingested, or childhood trauma exposures in either AUD or HC, although very few HC reported a history of childhood trauma.
Our results support previous findings of telomere shortening with chronic alcohol exposures and show both an effect of AUD on TL that is independent of age as well as a significant AUD by age interaction on TL. These findings are consistent with accelerated cellular aging in AUD.
KeywordsTelomere Stress Alcohol Genetics
The authors acknowledge the Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, NIAAA, including the 1SE Inpatient Behavioral Health Unit and the 1SE Outpatient Clinic and also thank the participants in the study.
All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.
The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Program and grant number Y1AA-3009 to NDV.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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