, Volume 236, Issue 9, pp 2667–2676 | Cite as

Anabolic androgenic steroid dependence is associated with impaired emotion recognition

  • Lisa E. HaugerEmail author
  • Dominic Sagoe
  • Anja Vaskinn
  • Espen A. Arnevik
  • Siri Leknes
  • Marie L. Jørstad
  • Astrid Bjørnebekk
Original Investigation



Illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown into a serious public health concern throughout the Western World. AAS use is associated with adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. Around 30% of AAS users develop a dependence syndrome with sustained use despite adverse side effects. AAS dependence is associated with a high frequency of intra- and interpersonal problems, and it is central to identify factors related to the development and maintenance of dependence.


The present study investigated the ability to recognize emotion from biological motion. The emotional biological motion task was administered to male AAS dependent users (AAS dependents; n = 45), AAS non-dependent users (AAS non-dependents; n = 38) and a comparison-group of non-using weightlifters (non-users; n = 69).


Multivariate analysis of variance showed a general impairment in emotion recognition in AAS dependents, compared to the non-using weightlifters, whereas no significant impairment was observed in AAS non-dependents. Furthermore, AAS dependents showed impaired recognition of fearful stimuli compared to both AAS non-dependents and non-using weightlifters. The between-group effect remained significant after controlling for Intelligence Quotient (IQ), past 6 months of non-AAS drug use, antisocial personality problems, anxiety, and depression.


AAS dependents show impaired emotion recognition from body movement, fear in particular, which could potentially contribute to higher frequency of interpersonal problems and antisocial behaviors in this population.


Anabolic androgenic steroids Testosterone Dependence Social cognition Body language Emotion processing Emotion recognition 



This research was funded by grants 2013087 and 2016049 (Dr Bjørnebekk) from the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, and internal research grants from the Division on Mental Health and Addiction (Dr Bjørnebekk).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


The founding organizations had no role in the design or conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Research Group, National Advisory Unit on Substance Use Disorder Treatment, the Division of Mental Health and AddictionOslo University HospitalOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Psychosocial ScienceUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  3. 3.Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research, KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Division of Mental Health and AddictionOslo University HospitalOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

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