Chronic phencyclidine treatment impairs spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys
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Phencyclidine (PCP) could induce schizophrenia (Sz) like behavior in both humans and animals, therefore, has been widely utilized to establish Sz animal models. It induced cognitive deficits, the core symptom of Sz, mainly through influencing frontal dopaminergic function. Nonhuman primate (NHP) studies demonstrated impaired object retrieval detour (ORD) and spatial delayed response (SDR) task performance by acute or chronic PCP treatment. However, NHP investigations, continually monitoring SDR performance before, during and after PCP treatment, are lacking.
Present study investigated the long-term influence of chronic PCP treatment on SDR performance and the possible increase of SDR deficit severity and duration by the incremental dosing procedure in rhesus monkeys.
SDR task was performed repeatedly up to eight weeks after constant dosing procedure (i.m., 0.3 mg/kg, day 12-25), during which drug effects on locomotor activity and blood cortisol concentration were assessed. Incremental dosing procedure (starting dose 0.3 mg/kg, day 6-19) began five months later.
Constant dosing procedure induced differential level of hyperactivity across testing days, without significant influence on blood cortisol concentration. It reduced SDR performance, until occurrence of the first and worst impairment on day 15 and 23 respectively. The impaired performance recovered to pretreatment level over one week after drug cessation. In contrast, incremental dosing procedure impaired SDR performance on the first treatment day, which recovered within treatment period.
Results suggested increase of SDR deficit severity by repeated PCP administrations, whereas the incremental dosing procedure did not increase SDR deficit severity and duration.
KeywordsSchizophrenia Phencyclidine Nonhuman primates Cognitive deficits Spatial delayed response
The authors acknowledge the support from National Science Foundation of China (NSFC 31771194, 31730039), Ministry of Science and Technology of China grant (2015CB351701, 2015CB856400), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC1001902, 2018YFC1313803), Yunnan Basic Research Program (2015FA004, 2017FA042, 2018FB114) the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Science (XDB32010300) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2015CL025).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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