Advertisement

Psychopharmacology

, Volume 236, Issue 2, pp 811–819 | Cite as

Effects of caffeine on intraocular pressure are subject to tolerance: a comparative study between low and high caffeine consumers

  • Jesús Vera
  • Beatríz RedondoEmail author
  • Rubén Molina
  • Javier Bermúdez
  • Raimundo Jiménez
Original Investigation
  • 159 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Caffeine has a well-established effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP); however, the possible differences between low- and high-caffeine consumers remain unknown.

Methods

In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and balanced crossover study, 40 healthy individuals were divided in low- (n = 21) and high (n = 19)-caffeine consumers, according to their daily caffeine consumption. All participants ingested either caffeine (4 mg/kg) or placebo, and IOP and OPP were measured after 30, 60, and 90 min of ingesting caffeine or placebo. Subjective feelings of arousal were also obtained.

Results

Caffeine induced an acute IOP rise (p < 0.001, ƞp2 = 0.408), whereas habitual caffeine demonstrated a mediating effect on the IOP changes induced by caffeine intake, with high-caffeine consumers showing a less accentuated IOP rise in comparison to low-caffeine consumers. The greatest IOP change induced by caffeine intake was reached after 90 min from capsule ingestion, being more accentuated for the low-caffeine consumers (+ 3.4 mmHg) than for the high-caffeine consumers (+ 1.2 mmHg). Consequently, the participants reported higher levels of perceived arousal after ingesting caffeine in comparison to placebo (p = 0.002, ƞp2 = 0.222); however, similar responses were given by high- and low-caffeine consumers (p = 0.256). Our data did not reveal any effect of caffeine consumption on OPP (p = 0.304).

Conclusions

These results suggest that IOP responsiveness to caffeine ingestion is subject to tolerance, which could have important implication in the management of glaucoma. This finding may be due to alterations in the adenosine receptor system caused by chronic caffeine consumption. Future studies are needed to assess if these findings are also applicable to patients with glaucoma.

Keywords

Caffeine Intraocular pressure Ocular perfusion pressure 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank to all the participants who selflessly collaborated in this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

The experimental protocol followed the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki, and it was approved by the University of Granada Institutional Review Board (IRB approval, 438/CEIH/2017).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Abokyi S, Owusu-Mensah J, Osei KA (2016) Caffeine intake is associated with pupil dilation and enhanced accommodation. Eye 31:615–619.  https://doi.org/10.1038/eye.2016.288 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnifili L, Mastropasqua R, Frezzotti P, Fasanella V, Motolese I, Pedrotti E, Iorio AD, Mattei PA, Motolese E, Mastropasqua L (2015) Circadian intraocular pressure patterns in healthy subjects , primary open angle and normal tension glaucoma patients with a contact lens sensor. Acta Ophthalmol 93:14–21.  https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.12408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajayi OB, Ukwade MT (2001) Caffeine and intraocular pressure in a Nigerian population. J Glaucoma 10:25–31.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00061198-200102000-00006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armstrong RA (2013) Statistical guidelines for the analysis of data obtained from one or both eyes. 7–14.  https://doi.org/10.1111/opo.12009
  5. Avisar R, Avisar E, Weinberger D (2002) Effect of coffee consumption on intraocular pressure. Ann Pharmacother 36:992–995.  https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1A279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barone JJ, Roberts HR (1996) Caffeine Consumption. Fd Chem Toxic 34:119–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(95)00093-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan MPY, Grossi CM, Khawaja AP, Yip JL, Khaw KT, Patel PJ, Khaw PT, Morgan JE, Vernon SA, Foster PJ, UK Biobank Eye and Vision Consortium (2016) Associations with intraocular pressure in a large cohort: results from the UK Biobank. Ophthalmology 123:771–782.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.11.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chandrasekaran S, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P (2005) Effects of caffeine on intraocular pressure: the blue mountains eye study. J Glaucoma 14:504–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen Y, Parrish TB (2009) Caffeine dose effect on activation-induced BOLD and CBF responses. Neuroimage 46:577–583.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.03.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cherecheanu AP, Garhofer G, Schmidl D, Werkmeister R, Schmetterer L (2013) Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma. Curr Opin Pharmacol 13:36–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2012.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Childs E, De Wit H (2006) Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine users. Psychopharmacology 185:514–523.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-006-0341-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Connell CJW, Thompson B, Turuwhenua J, Hess RF, Gant N (2017) Caffeine increases the velocity of rapid eye movements in unfatigued humans. Psychopharmacology 234:2311–2323.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4638-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corti R, Binggeli C, Sudano I, Spieker L, Hänseler E, Ruschitzka F, Chaplin WF, Lüscher TF, Noll G (2002) Coffee acutely increases sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure independently of caffeine content role of habitual versus nonhabitual drinking. Circulation 106:2935–2940.  https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000046228.97025.3A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa VP, Harris A, Anderson D, Stodtmeister R, Cremasco F, Kergoat H, Lovasik J, Stalmans I, Zeitz O, Lanzl I, Gugleta K, Schmetterer L (2014) Ocular perfusion pressure in glaucoma. Acta Ophthalmol 92:252–266.  https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.12298 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cuckson AC, Moran P, Seed P, Reinders A, Shennan AH (2004) Clinical evaluation of an automated oscillometric blood pressure wrist device. Blood Press Monit 9:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. D’Elia L, la Fata E, Galletti F, Scalfi L, Strazzullo P (2017) Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr 0:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1591-z Google Scholar
  17. De Moraes CGV, Juthani VJ, Liebmann JM et al (2011) Risk factors for visual field progression in treated glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 129:562–568.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.72 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Moraes CG, Mansouri K, Liebmann JM, Ritch R (2018) Association between 24-hour intraocular pressure monitored with contact lens sensor and visual field progression in older adults with glaucoma. JAMA Ophthalmol 10022:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.1746 Google Scholar
  19. de Morree HM, Klein C, Marcora SM (2014) Cortical substrates of the effects of caffeine and time-on-task on perception of effort. J Appl Physiol 117:1514–1523.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dervişoğulları MS, Totan Y, Yüce A, Kulak AE (2016) Acute effects of caffeine on choroidal thickness and ocular pulse amplitude. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 35:281–286.  https://doi.org/10.3109/15569527.2015.1104330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Echeverri D, Montes FR, Cabrera M, Galán A, Prieto A (2010) Caffeine’s vascular mechanisms of action. Int J Vasc Med 2010:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/834060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Einöther SJL, Giesbrecht T (2013) Caffeine as an attention enhancer: reviewing existing assumptions. Psychopharmacology 225:251–274.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-012-2917-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferré S (2008) An update on the mechanisms of the psychostimulant effects of caffeine. J Neurochem 105:1067–1079.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.05196.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Franklin SS, Khan SA, Wong ND, Larson MG, Levy D (1999) Is pulse pressure useful in predicting risk for coronary heart disease? The Framingham heart study. Circulation 100:354–360.  https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.100.4.354 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glade MJ (2010) Caffeine-not just a stimulant. Nutrition 26:932–938.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2010.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grosso G, Micek A, Godos J, Sciacca S, Pajak A, Martínez-González MA, Giovannucci EL, Galvano F (2016) Coffee consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in smokers and non-smokers: a dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol 31:1191–1205.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-016-0202-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grosso G, Godos J, Galvano F, Giovannucci EL (2017) Coffee, caffeine, and health outcomes: an umbrella review. Annu Rev Nutr 37:131–156.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064941 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB (2005) Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology 179:813–825.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-004-2104-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoddes E, Zarcone V, Dement W (1972) Development and use of Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Psychophysiology 9:150Google Scholar
  30. Ismail A, Bhatti MS, Faye I, Lu CK, Laude A, Tang TB (2018) Pulse waveform analysis on temporal changes in ocular blood flow due to caffeine intake: a comparative study between habitual and non-habitual groups. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 256:1711–1721.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-018-4030-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jiwani AZ, Rhee DJ, Brauner SC, Gardiner MF, Chen TC, Shen LQ, Chen SH, Grosskreutz CL, Chang KK, Kloek CE, Greenstein SH, Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Pasquale DL, Chaudhry S, Loomis S, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR, Turalba AV (2012) Effects of caffeinated coffee consumption on intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion pressure, and ocular pulse amplitude: a randomized controlled trial. Eye 26:1122–1130.  https://doi.org/10.1038/eye.2012.113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kang J, Willet W, Rosner B et al (2008) Caffeine consumption and the risk of primary open - angle glaucoma: a prospective cohort study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:1924–1931.  https://doi.org/10.1038/jid.2014.371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kennedy DO, Haskell CF (2011) Cerebral blood flow and behavioural effects of caffeine in habitual and non-habitual consumers of caffeine: a near infrared spectroscopy study. Biol Psychol 86:298–306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Leske MC (2009) Ocular perfusion pressure and glaucoma: clinical trial and epidemiologic findings. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 20:73–78.  https://doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0b013e32831eef82 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Li M, Wang M, Guo W, Wang J, Sun X (2011) The effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 249:435–442.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-010-1455-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Loftfield E, Cornelis M, Caporaso N et al (2018) Association of coffee drinking with mortality by genetic variation in caffeine metabolism: findings from the UK Biobank. JAMA Intern Med 178:1086–1097.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.2425 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mikalsen A, Bertelsen B, Flaten MA (2001) Effects of caffeine, caffeine-associated stimuli, and caffeine-related information on physiological and psychological arousal. Psychopharmacology 157:373–380.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130100841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Millar-Craig MW, Bishop CN, Raftery EB (1978) Circadian variation of blood-pressure. Lancet 311:795–797.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(78)92998-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mort JR, Kruse HR (2008) Timing of blood pressure measurement related to caffeine consumption. Ann Pharmacother 42:105–110.  https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1K337 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. National Health and Medical Research Council (2010) Guidelines for the screening, prognosis, diagnosis, management and prevention of glaucoma. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/cp113syn.htm. Accessed June 2011
  41. Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G (1992) Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Res Rev 17:139–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0173(92)90012-B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nurminen ML, Niittynen L, Korpela R, Vapaatalo H (1999) Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:831–839.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600899 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Okuno T, Sugiyama T, Tominaga M, Kojima S, Ikeda T (2002) Effects of caffeine on microcirculation of the human ocular fundus. Jpn J Ophthalmol 46:170–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-5155(01)00498-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Osei KA, Ovenseri-Ogbomo G, Kyei S, Ntodie M (2014) The effect of caffeine on tear secretion. Optom Vis Sci 91:171–177.  https://doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000000129 Google Scholar
  45. Pakrou N, Gray T, Mills R, Landers J, Craig J (2008) Clinical comparison of the Icare tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometry. J Glaucoma 17:43–47.  https://doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0b013e318133fb32 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Quaranta L, Katsanos A, Russo A, Riva I (2013) 24-hour intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in glaucoma. Surv Ophthalmol 58:26–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.survophthal.2012.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Quinlan PT, Lane J, Moore KL, Aspen J, Rycroft JA, O’Brien DC (2000) The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 66:19–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-3057(00)00192-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rysz J, Franczyk B, Banach M, Gluba-Brzozka A (2017) Hypertension - current natural strategies to lower blood pressure. Curr Pharm Des 23:2453–2461.  https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612823666170215144649 Google Scholar
  49. Schmidl D, Garhofer G, Schmetterer L (2011) The complex interaction between ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow - relevance for glaucoma. Exp Eye Res 93:141–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2010.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smirmaul BPC, de Moraes AC, Angius L, Marcora SM (2016) Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular fatigue and performance during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia. Eur J Appl Physiol 117:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3496-6 Google Scholar
  51. Terai N, Spoerl E, Pillunat LE, Stodtmeister R (2012) The effect of caffeine on retinal vessel diameter in young healthy subjects. Acta Ophthalmol 90:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02486.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tham YC, Li X, Wong TY, Quigley HA, Aung T, Cheng CY (2014) Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 121:2081–2090.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.05.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. van der Valk R, Webers CA, Schouten JS, Zeegers MP, Hendrikse F, Prins MH (2005) Intraocular pressure–lowering effects of all commonly used glaucoma drugs: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ophthalmology 112(7):1177–1185Google Scholar
  54. Vural AD, Kara N, Sayin N, Pirhan D, Ersan HBA (2014) Choroidal thickness changes after a single administration of coffee in healthy subjects. Retina 34:1223–1228.  https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000000043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Watson J, Deary I, Kerr D (2002) Central and peripheral effects of sustained caffeine use: tolerance is incomplete. Br J Clin Pharmacol 54:400–406.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2002.01681.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Optics, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations