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Psychopharmacology

, Volume 235, Issue 9, pp 2597–2608 | Cite as

Acute cocoa flavanols intake improves cerebral hemodynamics while maintaining brain activity and cognitive performance in moderate hypoxia

  • L. Decroix
  • K. De Pauw
  • J. Van Cutsem
  • N. Pattyn
  • E. Heyman
  • R. Meeusen
Original Investigation

Abstract

Introduction

Acute cocoa flavanols (CF) intake has been suggested to modulate cognitive function and neurovascular coupling (NVC). Whether increased NVC is solely driven by improved vascular responsiveness or also by neuronal activity remains unknown. This study investigated the effects of acute CF intake on cognitive performance, NVC, and neuronal activity in healthy subjects in normoxia and hypoxia (4000 m simulated altitude; 12.7% O2).

Methods

Twenty healthy subjects (age 23.2 ± 4.3 years) performed four trials. Participants performed a Stroop task and “cognition” battery 2 h after acute CF (530 mg CF, 100 mg epicatechin) or placebo intake, and 30 min after initial exposure to hypoxia or normoxia. Electroencephalogram and functional near-infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze hemodynamic changes and neuronal activity.

Results

CF enhanced NVC in the right prefrontal cortex during several tasks (risk decision making, visual tracking, complex scanning, spatial orientation), while neuronal activity was not affected. CF improved abstract thinking in normoxia, but not in hypoxia and did not improve other cognitive performances. Hypoxia decreased accuracy on the Stroop task, but performance on other cognitive tasks was preserved. NVC and neuronal activity during cognitive tasks were similar in hypoxia vs. normoxia, with the exception of increased β activity in the primary motor cortex during abstract thinking.

Conclusions

Acute CF intake improved NVC, but did not affect neuronal activity and cognitive performance in both normoxia and hypoxia. Most cognitive functions, as well as NVC and neuronal activity, did not decline by acute exposure to moderate hypoxia in healthy subjects.

Keywords

Electroencephalogram Functional near-infrared spectroscopy Cocoa flavanol Cognitive performance 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We kindly thank Pascale Fanca Berthon from Naturex® to manufacture, produce, and provide us with the supplements.

Compliance with ethical standards

The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Brussels University hospital and was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. LD has a grant “Lotto Sport Science Chair.”

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Decroix
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. De Pauw
    • 1
  • J. Van Cutsem
    • 1
  • N. Pattyn
    • 1
    • 3
  • E. Heyman
    • 2
  • R. Meeusen
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Physiology research group, Faculty of Physical Education and Physical TherapyVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselBelgium
  2. 2.Multi-disciplinary Research Unit of Sport, Heath and Society, URePSSSUniversity of Lille, Artois, Littoral Cote d’OpaleLoosFrance
  3. 3.Vital Signs and Performance Research UnitRoyal Military AcademyBrusselsBelgium

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