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L-linalool exerts a neuroprotective action on hemiparkinsonian rats

  • Jalles Dantas de Lucena
  • Carlos Vinicius Jataí Gadelha-Filho
  • Roberta Oliveira da Costa
  • Dayane Pessoa de Araújo
  • Francisco Arnaldo Viana Lima
  • Kelly Rose Tavares Neves
  • Glauce Socorro de Barros VianaEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Linalool (LIN) is a monoterpene, responsible for the aroma of essential oils in some species. It presents a sedative and anxiolytic potential, enhancing GABAergic currents and behaving as a benzodiazepine-type of drug. The objectives of the present work were to study the neuroprotective effects of LIN on a model of Parkinson’s disease. For that, male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sham-operated (SO), 6-OHDA-lesioned, and 6-OHDA-lesioned and treated with LIN (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Afterwards, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests (apomorphine-induced rotations, open field, and forced swimming tests). Then, the animals were euthanized, and the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex were processed for neurochemistry (nitrite and lipoperoxidation measurements) and immunohistochemistry (TH and DAT) assays. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons and considered significant at p < 0.05. LIN significantly improved the behavioral alterations of the 6-OHDA-lesioned group, as evaluated by the apomorphine-induced rotations, open field, and forced swimming tests. In addition, LIN partially reversed the decreased DA, DOPAC, and HVA contents observed in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum. The untreated 6-OHDA group presented increased nitrite contents and lipoperoxidation in all the brain areas studied, and these changes were completely reversed after LIN treatments. Finally, LIN significantly prevented the reduction in TH and DAT expressions demonstrated in the right 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum. All these data strongly suggest that LIN presents a neuroprotective action in hemiparkinsonian rats, probably related to the drug anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

Keywords

Parkinson’s disease Neuroprotection Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities 

Notes

Author contributions

JDL was responsible for stereotaxic surgeries, treatment of animals, and behavioral tests; CVJG-F helped with the maintenance of animals and behavioral tests; ROC and DPA helped with biochemical measurements; FAVL and KRTN helped with immunohistochemical assays; and GSBV coordinated the study and wrote the manuscript submitted for the approval of all authors.

Funding information

The authors are grateful to the financial supports of the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq), Coordination for Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES), and Foundation for Scientific and Technological Development Support of the State of Ceará (FUNCAP).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Experiments were carried out observing the guidelines of the USA National Research Council for care and use of laboratory animals (National Research Council 2011). The experimental procedures and protocols were approved by the Local Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jalles Dantas de Lucena
    • 1
  • Carlos Vinicius Jataí Gadelha-Filho
    • 2
  • Roberta Oliveira da Costa
    • 1
  • Dayane Pessoa de Araújo
    • 3
  • Francisco Arnaldo Viana Lima
    • 2
  • Kelly Rose Tavares Neves
    • 2
  • Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate Program in Morphofunctional Sciences, Faculty of MedicineFederal University of CearáFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Graduate Program in Pharmacology, Faculty of MedicineFederal University of CearáFortalezaBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratory of Experimental NeurologyState University of Rio Grande do NorteMossoróBrazil

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