Morphine as a treatment of cancer-induced pain—is it safe? A review of in vivo studies and mechanisms
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Morphine has been used in the treatment of pain for centuries. It is commonly used by oncology in terminal cancer cases and by surgery perioperatively for oncology surgery. Its extra-analgesic effects on cancer have been described extensively but conflicting results abound. It has been shown to have varying effects on tumour progression, cell proliferation, tumour invasion, angiogenesis, immune function, and metastatic potential. In vivo studies on the effects of morphine and the mu-opioid receptor on tumours are discussed below. Mechanisms involved are also discussed, drawn from a combination of both in vivo and in vitro methods. At present, no consensus can be drawn from data collected, and further studies are necessary to elicit the safest method and agent for analgesia in oncology patients.
KeywordsMorphine In vivo Cancer Mu-opioid receptor
DB conceived, researched, and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
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