Revisiting the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: lessons from the past and objectives for the future

  • Abhinav Aeron
  • Ekta Khare
  • Chaitanya Kumar Jha
  • Vijay Singh MeenaEmail author
  • Shadia Mohammed Abdel Aziz
  • Mohammed Tofazzal Islam
  • Kangmin Kim
  • Sunita Kumari Meena
  • Arunava Pattanayak
  • Hosahatti Rajashekara
  • Ramesh Chandra Dubey
  • Bihari Ram Maurya
  • Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari
  • Meenu Saraf
  • Mahipal Choudhary
  • Rajhans Verma
  • H. N. Meena
  • A. R. N. S. Subbanna
  • Manoj Parihar
  • Shruti Shukla
  • Govarthanan Muthusamy
  • Ram Swaroop Bana
  • Vivek K. BajpaiEmail author
  • Young-Kyu HanEmail author
  • Mahfuzur Rahman
  • Dileep Kumar
  • Norang Pal Singh
  • Rajesh Kumar Meena


Plant beneficial rhizobacteria (PBR) is a group of naturally occurring rhizospheric microbes that enhance nutrient availability and induce biotic and abiotic stress tolerance through a wide array of mechanisms to enhance agricultural sustainability. Application of PBR has the potential to reduce worldwide requirement of agricultural chemicals and improve agro-ecological sustainability. The PBR exert their beneficial effects in three major ways; (1) fix atmospheric nitrogen and synthesize specific compounds to promote plant growth, (2) solubilize essential mineral nutrients in soils for plant uptake, and (3) produce antimicrobial substances and induce systemic resistance in host plants to protect them from biotic and abiotic stresses. Application of PBR as suitable inoculants appears to be a viable alternative technology to synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Furthermore, PBR enhance nutrient and water use efficiency, influence dynamics of mineral recycling, and tolerance of plants to other environmental stresses by improving health of soils. This report provides comprehensive reviews and discusses beneficial effects of PBR on plant and soil health. Considering their multitude of functions to improve plant and soil health, we propose to call the plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) as PBR.


Plant-beneficial rhizobacteria (PBR) Agro-ecosystems Mineral solubilization Soil–plant–microbes interaction Microbial diversity 



AA and EK are thankful to National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea. VSM, AP, HR, MC are thankful to Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi India. DKM wishes to acknowledge UGC, UCOST and CSIR. MTI is thankful to the World Bank for funding this work through a Higher Education Quality Enhancement. DKM and AA conceived, outlined and wrote a part of the article. AA and SKM wrote the first draft of the manuscript and VSM designed figures, tabulation and finalizing the manuscript. All authors contributed equally to the work

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhinav Aeron
    • 1
    • 9
  • Ekta Khare
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chaitanya Kumar Jha
    • 3
  • Vijay Singh Meena
    • 4
    Email author
  • Shadia Mohammed Abdel Aziz
    • 5
  • Mohammed Tofazzal Islam
    • 6
  • Kangmin Kim
    • 1
  • Sunita Kumari Meena
    • 7
    • 8
  • Arunava Pattanayak
    • 4
  • Hosahatti Rajashekara
    • 4
  • Ramesh Chandra Dubey
    • 9
  • Bihari Ram Maurya
    • 10
  • Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari
    • 9
  • Meenu Saraf
    • 13
  • Mahipal Choudhary
    • 4
  • Rajhans Verma
    • 11
  • H. N. Meena
    • 12
  • A. R. N. S. Subbanna
    • 4
  • Manoj Parihar
    • 4
  • Shruti Shukla
    • 20
  • Govarthanan Muthusamy
    • 21
  • Ram Swaroop Bana
    • 14
  • Vivek K. Bajpai
    • 15
    Email author
  • Young-Kyu Han
    • 15
    Email author
  • Mahfuzur Rahman
    • 16
  • Dileep Kumar
    • 17
  • Norang Pal Singh
    • 18
  • Rajesh Kumar Meena
    • 19
  1. 1.Division of Biotechnology, College of Environmental and Bioresource SciencesChonbuk National UniversityIksanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biosciences and BiotechnologyChhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj UniversityKanpurIndia
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyGovernment Science College, VankalSuratIndia
  4. 4.ICAR-Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan (VPKAS)AlmoraIndia
  5. 5.Microbial Chemistry DepartmentNational Research CenterDokki, GizaEgypt
  6. 6.Department of BiotechnologyBangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  7. 7.Division of Soil Science and Agricultural ChemistryICAR-Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI)New DelhiIndia
  8. 8.Sugarcane Research Institute, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agriculture UniversitySamastipurIndia
  9. 9.Department of Botany and MicrobiologyGurukula Kangri UniversityHaridwarIndia
  10. 10.Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural SciencesBanaras Hindu University (BHU)VaranasiIndia
  11. 11.Department of Soil Science and Agricultural ChemistrySKN College of Agriculture, Jobner, SKN, Agriculture University, JobnerJaipurIndia
  12. 12.ICAR-Agricultural Technology Application Research Institute (ATARI)JodhpurIndia
  13. 13.University School of Sciences, Gujarat UniversityDepartment of Microbiology and BiotechnologyAhmedabadIndia
  14. 14.Division of AgronomyICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)New DelhiIndia
  15. 15.Department of Energy and Materials EngineeringDongguk University-SeoulSeoulRepublic of Korea
  16. 16.Extension ServiceWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  17. 17.Anand Agricultural University (AAU)AnandIndia
  18. 18.Microbial Genetics and PGPR Research Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agriculture SciencesBanaras Hindu University (BHU)VaranasiIndia
  19. 19.Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life SciencesUniversity of HyderabadHyderabadIndia
  20. 20.Department of Food Science and TechnologyNational Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management (NIFTEM)SonipatIndia
  21. 21.Department of Environmental EngineeringKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea

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