Advertisement

Distinct patterns of microbial metabolic fingerprints in sows and their offspring: a pilot study

  • Łukasz GrześkowiakEmail author
  • Jasmin Teske
  • Jürgen Zentek
  • Wilfried Vahjen
Original Paper

Abstract

Microbial metabolism and growth in the intestinal tract depend on the composition of substrates present in the digesta and their ability to be metabolised by the microorganisms. The aim of this pilot study was to characterise potential hindgut microbial activity during perinatal period in sows and their offspring. Rectal samples from three sows (1–3 weeks before and after birth) and three of their piglets (1–5 weeks after birth), were subjected to assays using BIOLOG GEN III microplates to produce metabolic fingerprints for each animal. The number of metabolised substrates of the sow hindgut microbiota was stable during the pregnancy and lactation periods, as assessed by the richness index. In piglets, the richness was stable during the suckling period and at beginning of weaning, however, it decreased when the piglets were 5 weeks old (P ≤ 0.05). Analysis of associations between the sows and the piglets and the microbial metabolic potential showed that microbial metabolism was strongly associated with the catabolism of carbohydrates especially in sows. Only 5-week-old weaned piglets clustered together with the sows regarding the microbial catabolism of substrates, but not suckling piglets. The association analyses clustered all the piglets in two groups distinctive for litter. The analysis of metabolic fingerprints via microbial growth with different substrates can be useful to positively influence microbial community function such as selectively enhancing desirable active microbial populations to benefit health of the gut and the animal.

Keywords

Profile microbiota Metabolism BIOLOG Sow Piglet Nutrition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Ms M. Eitinger for laboratory assistance as well as Dr. Baljit Singh for the mentorship and guidance throughout the project. The authors would like to thank the University of Saskatchewan Western College of Veterinary Medicine for the funding for this project through the Interprovincial Undergraduate Student Research Awards. ŁG was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG (GR 5107/2-1).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

203_2019_1766_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (311 kb)
Figure S1Associations between the study piglets’ microbiota and the metabolised substrates (PDF 311 kb)

References

  1. Beigi RH, Yudin MH, Cosentino L et al (2007) Cytokines, pregnancy, and bacterial vaginosis: comparison of levels of cervical cytokines in pregnant and nonpregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. J Infect Dis 196:1355–1360.  https://doi.org/10.1086/521628 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chavarría DN, Verdenelli RA, Serri DL et al (2016) Effect of cover crops on microbial community structure and related enzyme activities and macronutrient availability. Eur J Soil Biol 76:74–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.EJSOBI.2016.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Collado MC, Isolauri E, Laitinen K, Salminen S (2008) Distinct composition of gut microbiota during pregnancy in overweight and normal-weight women. Am J Clin Nutr 88:894–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coussons-Read ME, Okun ML, Nettles CD (2007) Psychosocial stress increases inflammatory markers and alters cytokine production across pregnancy. Brain Behav Immun 21:343–350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BBI.2006.08.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Everaert N, Van Cruchten S, Weström B et al (2017) A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis. Anim Feed Sci Technol 233:89–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frese SA, Parker K, Calvert CC, Mills DA (2015) Diet shapes the gut microbiome of pigs during nursing and weaning. Microbiome 3:28.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-015-0091-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. GfE (2006) Empfehlungen zur Energie- und Nährstoffversorgung von Schweinen. DLG Verlag, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  8. Gresse R, Chaucheyras-Durand F, Fleury MA et al (2017) Gut microbiota dysbiosis in postweaning piglets: understanding the keys to health. Trends Microbiol 25:851–873.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TIM.2017.05.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Grześkowiak Ł, Riedmüller J, de Thomasson H et al (2018) Porcine and bovine Clostridium difficile ribotype 078 isolates demonstrate similar growth and toxigenic properties. Int Microbiol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10123-018-0018-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Heinritz SN, Weiss E, Eklund M et al (2016) Intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites are changed in a pig model fed a high-fat/low-fiber or a low-fat/high-fiber diet. PLoS ONE 11:1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hurley WL (2015) The gestating and lactating sow. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.  https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-803-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jha R, Berrocoso JFD (2016) Dietary fiber and protein fermentation in the intestine of swine and their interactive effects on gut health and on the environment: a review. Anim Feed Sci Technol 212:18–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kieft TL, Soroker E, firestone MK (1987) Microbial biomass response to a rapid increase in water potential when dry soil is wetted. Soil Biol Biochem 19:119–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(87)90070-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim HB, Isaacson RE (2015) The pig gut microbial diversity: understanding the pig gut microbial ecology through the next generation high throughput sequencing. Vet Microbiol 177:242–251.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.03.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Morgan XC, Huttenhower C (2014) Meta’omic analytic techniques for studying the intestinal microbiome. Gastroenterology.  https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.01.049 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Pieper R, Villodre Tudela C, Taciak M et al (2016) Health relevance of intestinal protein fermentation in young pigs. Anim Health Res Rev 17:137–147.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1466252316000141 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Rösel S, Allgaier M, Grossart HP (2012) Long-term characterization of free-living and particle-associated bacterial communities in lake Tiefwaren reveals distinct seasonal patterns. Microb Ecol 64:571–583.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-012-0049-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Salzman NH, Hung K, Haribhai D et al (2010) Enteric defensins are essential regulators of intestinal microbial ecology. Nat Rev Immunol 11:76–82.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.1825.Enteric CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Simpson HL, Campbell BJ (2015) Review article: dietary fibre-microbiota interactions. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 42:158–179.  https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.13248 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Starke IC, Pieper R, Neumann K et al (2013) Individual responses of mother sows to a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain lead to different microbiota composition in their offspring. Benef Microbes 4:345–356.  https://doi.org/10.3920/BM2013.0021 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Stefanowicz A (2006) The biolog plates technique as a tool in ecological studies of microbial communities. Pol J Environ Stud 15:669–676Google Scholar
  22. Tims S, Derom C, Jonkers DM et al (2012) Microbiota conservation and BMI signatures in adult monozygotic twins. ISME J 7:707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. van Barneveld RJ (1999) Understanding the nutritional chemistry of lupin (Lupinus spp.) seed to improve livestock production efficiency. Nutr Res Rev 12:203–230.  https://doi.org/10.1079/095442299108728938 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Williams JM, Duckworth CA, Burkitt MD et al (2015) Epithelial cell shedding and barrier function: a matter of life and death at the small intestinal villus tip. Vet Pathol 52:445–455.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985814559404 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Zoetendal EG, de Vos WM (2014) Effect of diet on the intestinal microbiota and its activity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 30:189–195.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000048 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Animal Nutrition, Freie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Western College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations