Enhancing the performance of directional relay using a positive-sequence superimposed component

  • Ahmed R. AdlyEmail author
  • Ziad M. Ali
  • Alaa M. Abdel-hamed
  • Said A. Kotb
  • Hala M. Abdel Mageed
  • Shady H. E. Abdel Aleem
Original Paper


In this article, we propose a fault directional identification scheme that depends on the positive-sequence components of current based on an investigation of pre-fault and fault phase angles. The proposed protection scheme is developed for both distribution and transmission systems. However, as the current-only approach depends on the pre-fault current direction as the polarizing quantity, if the pre-fault current direction changes during normal conditions, the direction definitions would be swapped. This will cause a problem for the current-only approach. Therefore, a signal processing-based solution is presented, leveraging the fact that a change in direction in the pre-fault condition is associated with a phase angle change of 180°. The proposed protection scheme is examined with two different power system configurations (distribution and transmission systems). Simulation experiments conducted using ATP/EMTP software verified the feasibility of the proposed protection scheme. Moreover, the validity of the proposed protection scheme is compared with that of other directional schemes. The results confirmed the accurate operation of the proposed scheme.


Power flow Directional relay Positive-sequence superimposed current ATP/EMTP 

List of symbols


Power angle for source A


Power angle for source C


Angle difference between positive-sequence voltage and positive-sequence current


Power angle difference between source A and source C


A’s equivalent positive-sequence voltage


C’s equivalent positive-sequence voltage


Positive-sequence fault current measured by relay


Positive-sequence pre-fault current


Sampling frequency


Angle between the positive-sequence fault and pre-fault currents


Positive-sequence voltage of busbar A


Positive-sequence voltage of busbar B


Positive-sequence voltage of busbar C


Positive-sequence voltage of fault F1


Positive-sequence voltage of fault F2


Positive-sequence voltages components at the sending side (A)


Positive-sequence voltages components at the receiving side (C)


Impedance of line between side A and side C


A’s positive-sequence impedance


Positive-sequence impedance from busbars A to B


Positive-sequence impedance from busbar B to the fault point F1


C’s positive-sequence impedance


Positive-sequence impedance from the fault point F1 to busbar C



Angle difference


Electromagnetic transients program


Discrete Fourier transform


Distribution grids


Directional relay


Distribution system


Discrete wavelet transform


Fault direction


Fuzzy logic


Finite-state automata


General Park transformation


High fault resistance


High-impedance arcing faults


Least square technique


Neural network


Negative-sequence component


Negative-sequence superimposed component


Power flow change


Power flow direction


Proposed protection scheme


Positive-sequence components


Positive-sequence superimposed component


Support vector machine


Transient energy


Transmission line


Traveling waves


Wavelet transform


Zero-sequence component



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering at Wadi AddawaserPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAl-KharjSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Electrical Engineering Department, Aswan Faculty of EngineeringAswan UniversityAswanEgypt
  3. 3.Nuclear Research CenterAtomic Energy AuthorityNasrEgypt
  4. 4.High Institute of EngineeringEl-Shorouk AcademyEl ShoroukEgypt
  5. 5.National Institute of StandardsGizaEgypt
  6. 6.Mathematical and Physical Sciences15th of May Higher Institute of EngineeringCairoEgypt

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