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Enhancing the performance of directional relay using a positive-sequence superimposed component

  • Ahmed R. AdlyEmail author
  • Ziad M. Ali
  • Alaa M. Abdel-hamed
  • Said A. Kotb
  • Hala M. Abdel Mageed
  • Shady H. E. Abdel Aleem
Original Paper
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

In this article, we propose a fault directional identification scheme that depends on the positive-sequence components of current based on an investigation of pre-fault and fault phase angles. The proposed protection scheme is developed for both distribution and transmission systems. However, as the current-only approach depends on the pre-fault current direction as the polarizing quantity, if the pre-fault current direction changes during normal conditions, the direction definitions would be swapped. This will cause a problem for the current-only approach. Therefore, a signal processing-based solution is presented, leveraging the fact that a change in direction in the pre-fault condition is associated with a phase angle change of 180°. The proposed protection scheme is examined with two different power system configurations (distribution and transmission systems). Simulation experiments conducted using ATP/EMTP software verified the feasibility of the proposed protection scheme. Moreover, the validity of the proposed protection scheme is compared with that of other directional schemes. The results confirmed the accurate operation of the proposed scheme.

Keywords

Power flow Directional relay Positive-sequence superimposed current ATP/EMTP 

List of symbols

δA

Power angle for source A

δC

Power angle for source C

θ1

Angle difference between positive-sequence voltage and positive-sequence current

∆δ

Power angle difference between source A and source C

EA1

A’s equivalent positive-sequence voltage

EC1

C’s equivalent positive-sequence voltage

I1f

Positive-sequence fault current measured by relay

I1Pre

Positive-sequence pre-fault current

Sf

Sampling frequency

Sθ

Angle between the positive-sequence fault and pre-fault currents

UA1

Positive-sequence voltage of busbar A

UB1

Positive-sequence voltage of busbar B

UC1

Positive-sequence voltage of busbar C

UF1

Positive-sequence voltage of fault F1

UF2

Positive-sequence voltage of fault F2

VA1

Positive-sequence voltages components at the sending side (A)

VC1

Positive-sequence voltages components at the receiving side (C)

Z

Impedance of line between side A and side C

ZA1

A’s positive-sequence impedance

ZAB1

Positive-sequence impedance from busbars A to B

ZB1F1

Positive-sequence impedance from busbar B to the fault point F1

ZC1

C’s positive-sequence impedance

ZF1C1

Positive-sequence impedance from the fault point F1 to busbar C

Abbreviations

AD

Angle difference

ATP/EMTP

Electromagnetic transients program

DFT

Discrete Fourier transform

DGs

Distribution grids

DR

Directional relay

DS

Distribution system

DWT

Discrete wavelet transform

FD

Fault direction

FL

Fuzzy logic

FSA

Finite-state automata

GPT

General Park transformation

HFR

High fault resistance

HIAF

High-impedance arcing faults

LST

Least square technique

NN

Neural network

NSC

Negative-sequence component

NSSC

Negative-sequence superimposed component

PFC

Power flow change

PFD

Power flow direction

PPS

Proposed protection scheme

PSCs

Positive-sequence components

PSSC

Positive-sequence superimposed component

SVM

Support vector machine

TE

Transient energy

TL

Transmission line

TWs

Traveling waves

WT

Wavelet transform

ZSC

Zero-sequence component

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering at Wadi AddawaserPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAl-KharjSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Electrical Engineering Department, Aswan Faculty of EngineeringAswan UniversityAswanEgypt
  3. 3.Nuclear Research CenterAtomic Energy AuthorityNasrEgypt
  4. 4.High Institute of EngineeringEl-Shorouk AcademyEl ShoroukEgypt
  5. 5.National Institute of StandardsGizaEgypt
  6. 6.Mathematical and Physical Sciences15th of May Higher Institute of EngineeringCairoEgypt

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