Electrical Engineering

, Volume 101, Issue 4, pp 1119–1132 | Cite as

Novel active–passive compensator–supercapacitor modeling for low-voltage ride-through capability in DFIG-based wind turbines

  • M. Kenan DöşoğluEmail author
  • Osman Özkaraca
  • Uğur Güvenç
Original Paper


Low-voltage ride-through is important for the operation stability of the system in balanced- and unbalanced-grid-fault-connected doubly fed induction generator-based wind turbines. In this study, a new LVRT capability approach was developed using positive–negative sequences and natural and forcing components in DFIG. Besides, supercapacitor modeling is enhanced depending on the voltage–capacity relation. Rotor electro-motor force is developed to improve low-voltage ride-through capability against not only symmetrical but also asymmetrical faults of DFIG. The performances of the DFIG with and without the novel active–passive compensator–supercapacitor were compared. Novel active–passive compensator–supercapacitor modeling in DFIG was carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. A comparison of the system behaviors was made between three-phase faults, two-phase faults and a phase–ground fault with and without a novel active–passive compensator–supercapacitor modeling. Parameters for the DFIG including terminal voltage, angular speed, electrical torque variations and dq axis rotor–stator current variations, in addition to a 34.5 kV bus voltage, were investigated. It was found that the system became stable in a short time and oscillations were damped using novel active–passive compensator–supercapacitor modeling and rotor EMF.


Low-voltage ride-through Novel active–passive compensator–supercapacitor modeling DFIG-based wind turbine 

List of symbols




Active power (W)


Reactive power (W)


Voltage (V)


Current (A)


Inductance (H)


Angular speed (m/s)


Direct current (A)



Low-voltage ride-through


Doubly fed induction generator


Electro-motor force


Novel active–passive compensator


Transmission system operators


Wind turbine


Flexible AC transmission system


Static synchronous compensator


Energy storage system



  1. 1.
    Tsili M, Papathanassiou S (2009) A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms. IET Renew Power Gener 3(3):308–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Petersson A, Thiringer T, Harnefors L, Petru T (2005) Modeling and experimental verification of grid interaction of a DFIG wind turbine. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 20(4):878–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Muller S, Deicke M, De Doncker RW (2002) Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines. IEEE Ind Appl Mag 8(3):26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhu R, Chen Z, Wu X, Deng F (2015) Virtual damping flux-based LVRT control for DFIG-based wind turbine. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 30(2):714–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kashkooli MA, Madani SM, Lipo TA (2019) Improved direct torque control for a DFIG under symmetrical voltage dip with transient flux damping. IEEE Trans Industr Electron. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hu S, Lin X, Kang Y, Zou X (2011) An improved low-voltage ride-through control strategy of doubly fed induction generator during grid faults. IEEE Trans Power Electron 26(12):3653–3665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yao J, Li H, Chen Z, Xia X, Chen X, Li Q, Liao Y (2013) Enhanced control of a DFIG-based wind-power generation system with series grid-side converter under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. IEEE Trans Power Electron 28(7):3167–3181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mohseni M, Masoum MA, Islam SM (2011) Low and high voltage ride-through of DFIG wind turbines using hybrid current controlled converters. Electr Power Syst Res 81(7):1456–1465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ebrahimkhani S (2016) Robust fractional order sliding mode control of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines. ISA Trans 63:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xiong L, Li P, Wu F, Ma M, Khan MW, Wang J (2019) A coordinated high-order sliding mode control of DFIG wind turbine for power optimization and grid synchronization. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 105:679–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alsmadi YM, Xu L, Blaabjerg F, Ortega AJP, Abdelaziz AY, Wang A, Albataineh Z (2018) Detailed investigation and performance improvement of the dynamic behavior of grid-connected DFIG-based wind turbines under LVRT conditions. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 54(5):4795–4812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang L, Xu Z, Ostergaard J, Dong ZY, Wong KP (2012) Advanced control strategy of DFIG wind turbines for power system fault ride through. IEEE Trans Power Syst 27(2):713–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li XM, Zhang XY, Lin ZW, Niu YG (2018) An improved flux magnitude and angle control with LVRT capability for DFIGs. IEEE Trans Power Syst 33(4):3845–3853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xiao S, Geng H, Zhou H, Yang G (2013) Analysis of the control limit for rotor-side converter of doubly fed induction generator-based wind energy conversion system under various voltage dips. IET Renew Power Gener 7(1):71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liang J, Qiao W, Harley RG (2010) Feed-forward transient current control for low-voltage ride-through enhancement of DFIG wind turbines. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 25(3):836–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liang J, Qiao W, Harley RG (2009) Direct transient control of wind turbine driven DFIG for low voltage ride-through. In: Power electronics and machines in wind applications. PEMWA 2009. IEEE, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chondrogiannis S, Barnes M (2008) Stability of doubly-fed induction generator under stator voltage orientated vector control. IET Renew Power Gener 2(3):170–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liao K, Xu Y, Wang Y, Lin P (2019) Hybrid control of DFIGs for short-term and long-term frequency regulation support in power systems. IET Renew Power Gener 13(8):1271–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu Y, Jiang L, Smith JS, Wu QH (2018) Primary frequency control of DFIG-WTs using bang-bang phase angle controller. IET Gener Transm Distrib 12(11):2670–2678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yan L, Chen X, Zhou X, Sun H, Jiang L (2018) Perturbation compensation-based non-linear adaptive control of ESS-DVR for the LVRT capability improvement of wind farms. IET Renew Power Gener 12(13):1500–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Döşoğlu MK (2017) Enhancement of SDRU and RCC for low voltage ride through capability in DFIG based wind farm. Electr Eng 99(2):673–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saeed MA, Khan HM, Ashraf A, Qureshi SA (2018) Analyzing effectiveness of LVRT techniques for DFIG wind turbine system and implementation of hybrid combination with control schemes. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 81:2487–2501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Qiao W, Venayagamoorthy GK, Harley RG (2009) Real-time implementation of a STATCOM on a wind farm equipped with doubly fed induction generators. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 45(1):98–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ananth DVN, Kumar GN (2016) Fault ride-through enhancement using an enhanced field oriented control technique for converters of grid connected DFIG and STATCOM for different types of faults. ISA Trans 62:2–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abbey C, Joos G (2007) Supercapacitor energy storage for wind energy applications. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 43(3):769–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jerin ARA, Kaliannan P, Subramaniam U, El Moursi MS (2018) Review on FRT solutions for improving transient stability in DFIG-WTs. IET Renew Power Gener 12(15):1786–1799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Döşoğlu MK (2016) Hybrid low voltage ride through enhancement for transient stability capability in wind farms. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 78:655–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mohammadi J, Afsharnia S, Vaez-Zadeh S, Farhangi S (2016) Improved fault ride through strategy for doubly fed induction generator based wind turbines under both symmetrical and asymmetrical grid faults. IET Renew Power Gener 10(8):1114–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Döşoğlu MK, Güvenç U, Sönmez Y, Yılmaz C (2018) Enhancement of demagnetization control for low-voltage ride-through capability in DFIG-based wind farm. Electr Eng 100:491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Döşoğlu MK (2016) A new approach for low voltage ride through capability in DFIG based wind farm. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 83:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Döşoğlu MK, Arsoy AB, Güvenç U (2017) Application of STATCOM-supercapacitor for low-voltage ride-through capability in DFIG-based wind farm. Neural Comput Appl 28(9):2665–2674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Döşoğlu MK, Arsoy AB (2016) Transient modeling and analysis of a DFIG based wind farm with supercapacitor energy storage. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 78:414–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wu F, Zhang XP, Godfrey K, Ju P (2007) Small signal stability analysis and optimal control of a wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. IET Gener Transm Distrib 1(5):751–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Krause PC (2002) Analysis of electric machinery, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ekanayake JB, Holdsworth L, Jenkins N (2003) Comparison of 5th order and 3rd order machine models for double fed induction generators (DFIG) wind turbines. Electr Power Syst Res 67(3):207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Slootweg JG, Polinder H, Kling WL (2001) Dynamic modelling of a wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. IEEE Power Eng Soc Summer Meet 1:644–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mohammadi J, Afsharnia S, Vaez-Zadeh S (2014) Efficient fault-ride-through control strategy of DFIG-based wind turbines during the grid faults. Energy Convers Manag 78:88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mohammadi J, Afsharnia S, Ebrahimzadeh E, Blaabjerg F (2017) An enhanced LVRT scheme for DFIG-based WECSs under both balanced and unbalanced grid voltage sags. Electr Power Compon Syst 45(11):1242–1252Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gaiceanu M (2012) MATLAB/SIMULINK-based grid power inverter for renewable energy sources integration. In: MATLAB—a fundamental tool for scientific computing and engineering applications, pp 1–219Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rona B, Güler Ö (2015) Power system integration of wind farms and analysis of grid code requirements. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 49:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Technology FacultyDüzce UniversityDüzceTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Information Systems Engineering, Technology FacultyMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityMuğlaTurkey

Personalised recommendations