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Electrical Engineering

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 1059–1073 | Cite as

A protection strategy for inverter-interfaced islanded microgrids with looped configuration

  • Hamed Karimi
  • Ghazanfar ShahgholianEmail author
  • Bahador Fani
  • Iman Sadeghkhani
  • Majid Moazzami
Original Paper
  • 65 Downloads

Abstract

Development of an efficient protection strategy is one of the main barriers in paving the way for the implementation of inverter-based microgrids. The limited fault current of voltage-sourced converter (VSC) units as the sole fault feeding sources in the islanded mode of operation makes the fault detection difficult for conventional overcurrent-based protection system. On the other hand, bidirectional power flow due to the presence of distributed energy resource units and looped configuration of microgrids results in miscoordination of the overcurrent relays. To address these problems, this paper proposes a protection strategy for islanded inverter-interfaced looped microgrids. By monitoring the fault-imposed component of VSC current, the proposed scheme quantifies the severity of fault condition as the fault detection criterion. To preserve the protection coordination among available overcurrent relays, the proposed protection scheme adaptively changes the limiting level of hybrid reference frame limiter of the VSC control system proportional to their distances to the fault point. The proposed protection scheme is local, and there is no need for any change in the commercially available overcurrent protection relays. The reliable performance of the proposed protection strategy is assessed on the simulation model of a looped microgrid network.

Keywords

Distributed energy resource (DER) Fault detection Looped microgrid Overcurrent relay Protection coordination Voltage-sourced converter (VSC) 

List of symbols

CB

Circuit breaker

CLF

Current limiting factor

DER

Distributed energy resource

FDI

Fault detection index

HRFL

Hybrid reference frame limiting

I

Relay current

\(I_{\mathrm{PS}}\)

Plug setting current

\(I_\mathrm{L}^{\mathrm{ref}}\)

RMS value of inductor current reference

\(i_\mathrm{L}^{\mathrm{ref}}\)

Inductor current reference

\({i'}_\mathrm{L}^{\mathrm{ref}}\)

Limited inductor current reference

\(i_\mathrm{o}\)

Output current

\(i_{\mathrm{o},\mathrm{F}}^{\mathrm{pu}}\)

Fault component of output current

\(i_{\mathrm{o},\mathrm{FI}}^{\mathrm{pu}}\)

Fault-imposed component of output current

\(i_{\mathrm{o},\mathrm{N}}^{\mathrm{pu}}\)

Normal-running component of output current

\(i_{\mathrm{th}}\)

Current threshold

k

Sampling step

N

Number of samples within a moving window

OCR

Overcurrent relay

OSI

Overall severity index

\(S_{\mathrm{base}}\)

Nominal power of DER

\(T_\mathrm{d}\)

Time delay of Delta filter

\(T_\mathrm{s}\)

Sampling time

t

Operating time of relay

\(U_{\mathrm{F}}^{\mathrm{pu}}\)

Amplitude of fault component of DER output voltage

\(U_{\mathrm{N}}^{\mathrm{pu}}\)

Amplitude of normal-running component of DER output voltage

\(V_{\mathrm{base}}\)

Nominal voltage of DER

\(v_\mathrm{o}\)

Output voltage

\(v_\mathrm{o}^{\mathrm{ref}}\)

Output voltage reference

VSC

Voltage-sourced converter

\(\xi \)

Fault detection threshold

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamed Karimi
    • 1
  • Ghazanfar Shahgholian
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bahador Fani
    • 1
  • Iman Sadeghkhani
    • 1
  • Majid Moazzami
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringNajafabad Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityNajafabadIran

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