Our study aimed at constructing and validating the Lebanese Osteoporosis Knowledge Scale adapted for use among Lebanese women and to assess factors associated with the poorest knowledge of osteoporosis definition, risk factors, and preventive measures. This scale showed adequate psychometric properties; higher knowledge scores were reached in women who already heard about the disease and had a formal education. As a result, the LOKS-19 can be used to measure knowledge of osteoporosis and help assess osteoporosis-related interventions.
The primary objective of this study was to describe the construction of the Lebanese Osteoporosis Knowledge Scale (LOKS) and assess its psychometric properties in a representative sample of Lebanese women aged 40 years and above. Secondary objectives were to explore factors associated with this knowledge score.
A cross-sectional study carried out between March and June 2018, enrolled 560 women over the age of 40 years living in the community. This proportionate sample was randomly selected from all Lebanese governorates to cover the entire Lebanese area. A survey was developed and adapted to the Lebanese population based on preexisting scales. Personal interviews were conducted to collect data.
The items of the LOKS were distributed across seven factors with an Eigenvalue over 1 solution, outlining an overall value of 55.89% of the variance. A high Cronbach’s alpha was found for the full scale (0.725). Individuals having a university level of education (beta = 1.62; compared to illiteracy), having heard of osteoporosis (beta = 2.62), taking supplements of calcium and vitamin D compared to none (beta = 0.77), and having had Crohn’s disease (beta = 1.71) had significantly higher knowledge scores of osteoporosis; oppositely, having diabetes (beta = − 1.17), currently taking chemotherapy (beta = − 2.25), and ever having had a fracture (beta = − 0.74) were significantly correlated with lower awareness of osteoporosis.
Our findings suggest that the LOKS-19 can be used to measure knowledge of osteoporosis and help assess osteoporosis-related interventions. A better knowledge seems to be associated with more preventive measures and less risk of fracture.
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Conflicts of interest
In accordance with the Regulatory Research Protocol of the Hospital, the Institutional Review Board of the Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK) approved this study protocol based on the fact that participants’ autonomy and confidentiality have been respected and since it was an observational study, no harm will be caused to them. The purpose and requirement of the study were explained to each woman and they all signed written informed consent.
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Hallit, S., El Hage, C., Hajj, A. et al. Construction and validation of the Lebanese Osteoporosis Knowledge Scale among a representative sample of Lebanese women. Osteoporos Int 31, 379–389 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-019-05192-3