Test systems for the biomechanical evaluation of hip protectors: a systematic review

  • S.A. YahayaEmail author
  • Z.M. Ripin
  • M.I.Z. Ridzwan


Various mechanical and biomechanical test systems to evaluate the effectiveness of hip protectors designed to prevent hip fracture as a result of falls were examined in this review. The articles considered were selected systematically. The effect of differences in design criteria was demonstrated, and it was observed that the impact energy employed during testing dramatically affects the performance of the hip protector. Over the past three decades, researchers have continuously experimented with various systems to determine the efficacy of various hip protectors. The primary aim has been to make informed decisions in optimizing hip protector design. This article provides a systematic review of various test systems employed in the determination of the biomechanical efficacy of hip protectors. A systematic literature search was carried out, and 28 relevant articles were included to demonstrate the effect of test systems in the evaluation of the biomechanical effectiveness of hip protectors. Methodological studies illustrated the appropriate use of impact testing systems for the simulation of hip anatomy and fall dynamics in evaluating the effectiveness of hip protectors in preventing a hip fracture. This systematic review has demonstrated the effect of the variability of test systems on the evaluation of impact attenuation by various hip protectors. The lack of standardized test systems accounts for the inconsistencies in the test results of the efficacy of hip protectors. This has been a major challenge in the efforts of researchers to optimize the interventions. The standardization of test systems may require needed improvements immediately as opposed to the development of new interventions in order to ensure that only hip protectors with adequately proven efficacies are deployed for clinical trials or for the protection of the hips of vulnerable individuals from sideways impact.


Biomechanical effectiveness Fracture Hip protector Hip pad Mechanical testing Osteoporotic hip 



Special thanks to the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund) and the University of Ilorin, Nigeria, for the TETF/ES/UNI/ILORIN/ASTD/2017 intervention.

Funding information

Financial support provided under the USM grant 1001/PMEKANIK/8014070.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering CampusUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria

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